Pivotal Decades Part 1 Notes
Pivotal Decades Part 1 Notes PSCI 4830
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaylen Howard on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI 4830 at University of North Texas taught by Andrew Enterline in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see American Foreign Affairs in POLITCAL SCIENCE at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
John Cooper’s Pivotal Decades 1900-1920 Notes, Question, and Answers PAGE # AND SIDE NOTES NOTES AND QUESTIONS PART I PG 2 What were the psychological views of expansion? Point of view through immigration Point of view through urbanization regarding moving west Point of view that expansion was cycle of American prosperity and growth. When arriving in America, What did immigrants seek to pursue? Jobs Land Release from foreign debt, ‘advancementin the nation’. Freedom from European aristocracy, traditions and religious prejudice. Release form poverty and forced military. PG 8-9 In what way did immigrants encourage the American belief of ‘self-made man and /or woman’? Prosperity in New York and Chicago Success and motives of becoming lawyers, journalist, teachers and business persons - Elihu Roots(lawyer) Sodbuster-farmers/ homesteaders - Samuel McClure (Irish magazine editor) - Jane Addams (social worker) PG 8-9 Why did protestant middle-class whites see immigration as a threat? They feared massive influx of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe It was a culture shock to them -exotic languages, customs, religions, different complexions -change in social character in America PG 9 What were some restrictions white protestants enacted to keep southern and eastern European immigrants out? Prohibition Literacy test, intentions were to give leeway to protestant Nordics from Germany Scandinavia and British isles. PG 4-5 How did the advancement of technology create social division? Rich Americans benefited more Americans in cities, businesses, wealthier homes received electricity. Country side farmers and their families were not able to receive electricity or indoor plumbing Only governments and businesses that were right received telephones ‘The horizon of manyAmericans were further limited by the uneven distribution of political and social benefits…’ ‘Not all citizens shared equally in the heritage of American democracy.’(pg. 4) What are some social and economics divisions in America during it intro to the 20hcentury? Division of race and nationality, right to vote. Immigrants faced ‘naturalization and registration restrictions(4,6,7) Division in regions (northeast/South/West), poor, rich, black and immigrant. The nation was under the white males command. ---America was considered three countries. ---Northeast and Midwest, industrial and prosperous ---South, poor and powerless ---West, conservation of natural resources *’The U.S. boasted of being the ‘land of the free, but some Naturalization- admitting a foreigner Americans enjoyed more freedoms than the majority of their to the citizenship of a country compatriots.’(pg.5) PG 14 How did materialism fit in religious skepticism? Protestant and Catholic denounced materialism for its idea of ‘the natural world. Materialism encouraged the grown popularity of science and technology. Materialism- doctrine that nothing *‘Objectivism of science and art and literature through realism exist except for matter and/or and naturalism affected to remove spiritual and morally refined imperatively seeking comfort in elements in favor of the re-creation of ‘real-life.’ (pg.14) materialistic things than spiritual values. PG 37 What were the dangers and benefits of materialism, according to Roosevelt? He perceived that America faced similar ‘internal materialism as other industrial nations.’ He perceived materialism as the social and political impact of huge concentrations of wealth. He constructed the‘fighting features’as an indication of strength, courage and sacrifice. Because of his mixed emotion regarding materialism, Roosevelt feared a social revolution between the greedy right and the envious poor. *Roosevelt cannot help but support the background he was raised in, in other words support for the wealthy (his normal) does override his temporary sympathy for the poor. PG 51 What were some characteristic of Roosevelt that created instability in his presidency? Denial of the Panama Canal (pg. 53) ---Roosevelt had mixed emotions regarding Panama affair, he declared that his guilt was justifiable and his betrayal of the project was the ‘highest standard of morality.’ RED FLAG that hewas unsure of his moral grounds. Bully towards smaller weaker countries (Latin America), but was cautious and sensitive towards national of equal supremacy (Europe). *Elihu Root’s response to Roosevelt’scowardice’s actions towards the Panama canal, ‘Youhave shown that you were accused of seduction andyou have conclusively proved that you were guilty of rape.’ (pg.55) *Unlike Wilson, Roosevelt was a peace maker, in addition, unlike Wilson Roosevelt focused too much on being the good guy then sticking to his own point of view. *Roosevelt was a big people pleaser, which made him a puppet to human interest. His persona consist of power in warfare and dominance of other countries, but when it came to being accountable of the outcome of his decision he wavered according to how the public viewed and reacted to his policies. PG 50 What was Roosevelts Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine? The ultimate requirement of intervention by a civilized nation, in this case the Western Hemisphere. Big Stick Abroad policy, ‘Speak softly and carry a big stick and you will go far. His big stick policy became the emblem of his diplomacy. Which carried down to his intervention in Latin American Affairs. Negotiation between America as a world power and fixing foreign issues. Roosevelts used a ‘Big brother theory” of keeping the small countries (Spanish) down so that the U.S. can stay superior. PG 17-18 What was the purpose of the Spanish and American war? America’s responseto attack on the Havana of U.S. battle ship Maine by Spain. The U.S. used its victory over Spain to take become a Sensationalism- enactment of stories ‘protectorate’ ofCuba and later the Philippines. to extract public interest. Introduced Yellow Journalism, sensationalism over facts, use of the American press caused some friction between the Spanish and U.S. Foreign policy issues: Imperialistvs. anti-imperialist Imperialist- (elite white men) valued the U.S. military victory, expansion and industrialization but feared failure *Imperialism was the example of leading European nations and when it came to asserting power in the ruling backwards peoples by playing the role of a major power world politically and economically on the international stage.’ The U.S. believed they could become (pg.18) the greatest nation in the world (pg.14). Anti- imperialist- (immigrant- *Anti- imperialist ‘argued that colonialismdid ruthless violence Americans) denied the idea that the to the spirit of our constitution and to all the fundamental U.S. was more superiorto other principles of democratic government. They revoked expansion countries, predominantly the beyond the border and promoted Jefferson’s non-entanglement aristocratic and monarchical regimes of with other countries. Europe. PG 102-103 What foreign affair policies did Roosevelt view as an accomplishment? Russo-Japanese War, war between Russia and Japan due to the Russian expansionism in Asian territory, Korea ad Manchuria. -America was all for japans victory but feared the power of the Japanese’s soon after. - Japan’s dominance in the east partnered with new naval prowess posed a potential threat to American in the pacific. Initiation of negotiation/ PEACE MAKER,Roosevelt’s involvement of the balance of international powers and commitment to an active role in world affairs. Portsmouth Conference, ‘demanded principles to persuade the Japanese and Russia to negotiate the release of Asian territory back to Asia. Overall it was an success *’Privately Roosevelt stated’ I was pleased with the Japanese victory, for Japan was playing our game…’ however, He ‘worried that the war might have replaced one aggressor with another.’ (pg. 103). How was the Great White Fleet a failure? PG 108 Enacted after Roosevelt settled the controversy in California regarding Chinese immigrants. Diplomatic controversies with japan lingered into the affairs of the Chinese, as white Californians resented the Asian presences and discriminated against them, in the West Coast. Chinese Exclusion act, was the first immigration Open Door Declaration-public restriction law. Roosevelts response to the issue was expressions of support for Chinas the influence he bestowed upon the Californian independence and territorial integrity. governor to prevent actions of excluding Asians from (pg. 108) the state. Americans feared that the power of Asia would take over America, thus the decision of the exclusion act. Roosevelts gesture to the international stage, he ordered American battles fleets to make a round the world cruise to imply force and impress the American people. Failure because it lacked international awareness. *‘Domestic difficulties began to erupt when self-delusion at home as well as abroad became the hallmark at the White Fleet’. (pg. 109) PG 147-151 President Taft presidency was a hard follow up to Roosevelt. What where some of Taft’s weaknesses and strengths? Taft’s lack of balance between political parties, division between insurgents and conservatives. Weakness was his use of bargaining and intrigue, which made it hard for him to understand and the ‘public dimensions of politics. - He chose sides with the senate - Publicly backing conservative in party battles with insurgents that resulted in conservatives Taft accomplishment the enforcement of the Sherman anti-trust act. *Taft stated, ‘I think the law is a good law that ought to be enforced and I propose to enforce it.’ (149). Forty more anti-trust precautionthen Roosevelt. Separate cases with Supreme Court against Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company and American Federal Children’s Bureau-the Tobacco Company. watching over ofchildren labor laws He enlarged the role of tariffs in order to ‘grantthe and other child welfare concerns. president authority to lower duties under reciprocity agreements and other countries.’ (pg. 151). Interstate Commerce Commission- Won legislation that established the federal children Empowerment and reduction of bureau. railroad, telephone and telegraph rates Saved systems under the Post Office as an alternative to and taxed dangerous, unhealthy private banks. phosphorous matches out of existence. Strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission. PG 154 What was Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy and how did it differ from Roosevelts Big Stick theory? Taft’s two sided diplomacy promoted private trade and investments abroad, the other used private banks as a source of loans to foreign governments, like China and Latin America. Roosevelt might have initiated both diplomacy, but Taft publicly announced his plan. Taft was more ‘idealistic’ in foreign affairs then Roosevelt. Taft’s Loans to China were an offset to the Japanese financial dominance, making them less of a threat to America. Arbitration- settlement of adispute Arbitration Treaty with Britain to rule out anyarmed between two countries by using a third conflict between the two nations. party. Roosevelt did not agree to Taft’s Arbitration Treaty, but that was not the only feud between the two politicians during the time. There was the Ballinger-Pinchot controversy. * ’The ex-president denounced the treaty as a scheme piece of offensive hypocrisy.’ (pg.155) Conservation movement- Ballinger Pinchot Affair was used to sway the public and environmental and social movement to Roosevelt’sopinion on the split of the Republican Party protect natural resources. and help defend Conservation Movement.(pg.155). -Battle between Gifford Pinchot--who stirred up the controversy and later failed to succeed-and Secretary Ballinger. In conclusion, Immigration and establishments of new laws, tariffs and other domestic and foreign agreements and theories signified the th early 20 century as the pivotal decades of the U.S. The establishment of new political parties derived from old political parties theories and new presidential thoughts of how the nation should be constructed grew throughout the 1900s. Roosevelt’s presidency teeter tottered in regards to self-interest and ethics. Because of the presidents rich background he carried with him prejudice and the values of human interest. If the public was not for it, neither was he and that was at the time one of his down falls. Taft Presidency was a turning point in regards to tariffs and other legislations that helped the country in it series of affairs. He may not have been the ultimate peace maker or political negotiator but he was able to break free from being under Roosevelts shadow and make his mark. In section II, President Wilson will be in the spot light as he takes on his ‘sea of troubles’ post WWI. In addition, Roosevelt, Taft and Bryan will be a part of Wilson’s term to deal with the foreign affairs in America.
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