Problems and Solutions in Modern Policing
Problems and Solutions in Modern Policing CCJ 2002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kamila Timaul on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 2002 at Florida Atlantic University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Law, Crime and the Criminal Justice System in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida Atlantic University.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
UNIT 6 Problems and Solutions in Modern Policing The Role of Discretion in Policing Justification for Police Discretion Officers are considered trustworthy and are therefore assumed to make honest decisions Experience and training give officers the ability to determine whether certain activity poses a threat to society, and take action to investigate or prevent that activity Officers are extremely knowledgeable in human, and by extension criminal behavior Officers may find themselves in harm’s way and must be allowed to take action to protect themselves Police Organization and Field Operations FACTORS IN POLICE DISCRETION Nature of the Criminal act Attitude of the wrongdoer Relationship between the victim and the offender Policy Mandatory arrest laws Bureaucracy THE PURPOSE OF PATROL 1. The deterrence of crime by maintaining a visible police presence 2. The maintenance of public order and a sense of security in the community 3. The twentyfourhour provision of services that are not crime related PATROL ACTIVITES: 1. Preventative Patrol 2. Calls for service 3. Administration duties 4. Officersinitiated activities INVESTIGATIONS: The responsibility of detectives Aggressive strategies include going undercover and working with confidential informants Preventative strikes to combat domestic terrorism Success is measured with clearance rates, or the number of cases resulting in arrest and prosecution Forensic experts determine crucial facts of a case: Cause of injury/death Time of injury/death Type of weapon used Identity of crime victim Identity of the offender THE DNA REVOLUTION DNA provides the genetic “blueprint” or “code” for every living organism When DNA is recovered at a crime scene and matched to a suspect, the odds that match is conclusive are 30 million to 1. The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) is a database that stores DNA samples taken from crime scenes As of 2007, CODIS has produced almost 59,000 cold hits nationwide. Police Strategies Police Strategies What Works? Response time to 911 calls Incident – Driven policing Response time is used as a benchmark of efficiency Differential response “Cold” calls versus “Hot” calls Location intelligence RANDOM PATROL Relies on officers to monitor a certain area detecting crime in progress or preventing crimes due to their presence Also called preventative patrol, or random patrol DIRECTED PATROL Is designed to respond to a specific criminal activity at a specific time Targeted areas are labeled hot spots Predictive Policing Anticipation of crime to occur Finding hot spots Broken window theory Crime mapping Geographic information system (the computer separates the city into grids and shows areas with high incidences for certain crimes) Community Policing is a strategy that emphasizes community support for, and cooperation with, police in preventing crime PROBLEMORIENTED POLICING A key component of community policing Moves beyond simply responding to incidents and attempts instead to control or even solve the root causes of criminal behavior Two important aspects of problem solving policing are “hot spots” and crime mapping STEPS: 1. Identification – analyze crime data to determine which areas of the city have the highest levels of drug crime 2. Preparation – Coordinate with local law enforcement, politicians, social service providers, and residents to ensure that the initiative will receive community support 3. Notification – Following a large scale crackdown on known drug dealers, those criminals are given the options of “turning their lives around” with the help of social services or being convicted and imprisoned. 4. Resource Delivery – Those drug dealers who choose are provided with assistance such as drug treatment, education and skills training and jobinterview skills US vs. THEM AUTHORITY and the USE OF FORCE: Reasonable Force: degree of force that is appropriate to protect the officer and other citizens Deadly Force: force likely or intended to cause death Police Misconduct and Ethics Ethical dilemmas are defined as a situation in which law enforcement officers: Do not know the right course of action Have difficulty doing what they consider to be right Find the wrong choice very tempting Four Categories of Ethical Dilemmas: 1. Discretion 2. Duty 3. Honesty 4. Loyalty
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