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Domestic Terrorism and Homeland Security

by: Kamila Timaul

Domestic Terrorism and Homeland Security DSC 4012

Marketplace > Florida Atlantic University > Criminal Justice > DSC 4012 > Domestic Terrorism and Homeland Security
Kamila Timaul

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Learning Objectives • Summarize the debate over the meaning of domestic terrorism. • Explain the legal difference between extremism and domestic terrorism. • Categorize the forms of domestic ter...
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kamila Timaul on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to DSC 4012 at Florida Atlantic University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Terrorism in Criminal Justice at Florida Atlantic University.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
Terrorism and Homeland Security, 9e CHAPTER 12 Understanding Domestic Terrorism • Local law enforcement agencies approach terrorism with their own interpretations. • Some American police agencies have gone to great lengths to prepare for terrorism;  others have not.  • Law enforcement is a local affair in the U.S., complicated by layers of competing state  and federal bureaucracies.  Classifying Domestic Terrorism FBI Categories: – Domestic terrorism involves violent political extremism, single­issue terrorism,  and lone­wolf activities. – International terrorism is defined as threats that originate outside the United  States.  Brent Smith Classifications: – Right­wing extremist – Left­wing and single­issue terrorists – International terrorists  Racism and Terrorism, Part 1 • Christian Identity blend of Jewish and Christian biblical passages; premise that God was  white. • Jews have gained control of the United States by conspiring to create the Federal Reserve System. • Christian Identity provided a theological base for stating that white people originated  with God, and Jews came from the devil. • Small groups dominated by Christian Identify theology and Christian patriotism engage  in localized violence. Racism and Terrorism, Part 2 • Extremists began preaching Nordic Christianity in northern Germany.  • Another religious derivation, Creativity rejects Judaism and Christianity altogether. • The majority of right­wing extremists retreated to more conservative churches, and relied on individual interpretations of scripture to justify antigovernment actions. This group  can loosely be described as free­wheeling fundamentalists. Violent Right­Wing Extremism  • The KKK has operated in three distinct phases through history. • Shortly after the Civil War, hooded Knight Riders, as they were called, terrorized African Americans to frighten them into political and social submission. • The second phase of the Klan came in the 1920s as it sought political legitimacy. • The modern KKK grew after World War II. It is now fragmented, decentralized, and  dominated by hate­filled rhetoric. Sovereign Citizens Sovereign citizens common beliefs: – They can declare themselves free of American citizenship.  – There are two governments. Paper terrorism – They file false liens, write bogus checks, and sight drafts against non­existent  accounts.  More than 30 police officers have been killed in confrontations with sovereign citizens. Sovereign Citizens Sovereign Citizens • Can declare themselves free of American citizenship as well as laws and taxes  • Sovereign citizens also tend to believe that there are two governments. One is legitimate  and devoid of governmental regulation except for English common law.  • The illegitimate government includes all federal and state governments.  • No single sovereign citizen ideology The Turner Diaries and Hunter The Turner Diaries – Diatribe against minorities and Jews – How­to manual for low­level terrorism  – Psychological inspiration for violence  – William Pierce   Hunter  – Tells the story of a lone wolf named Hunter who decides to launch a one­person  revolution – He stalks the streets to kill African Americans, interracial couples, and Jews. Change on the Left • Left­wing terrorist groups dominated terrorism in the U.S. from 1967 to 1985.  • They engaged in symbolic violence. • The intellectual elites who controlled the movement contributed to the U.S. demise. • In Europe, people who may have been sympathetic to the ideology of left­wing terrorists  could not tolerate their violent activities as terrorism increased. Single­Issue Criminal Extremists  • Earth Liberation Front (ELF) – Responsible for more than 600 criminal acts since 1996 using tactics such as,  sabotage, tree spiking, property damage, and arson. • Ecoterrorism crimes included raids of farms, destruction of animal research laboratories  and sabotage of industrial equipment, and arson. • Ecoterrorists are uncompromising, illogical extremists just like their right­wing  counterparts. Anti­Abortion Violence Violent antiabortionists began with bombing and arson attacks more than twenty years ago, and  they have enhanced their tactics since then. – Doctors and nurses have been assaulted when entering clinics. To these people, accepting the status quo is more evil than using violence to change behavior. David Nice’s Explanations for Violent Political Behavior 1. Social controls break down under stress and urbanization. 2. Violence increases when people are not satisfied with political outcomes. 3. Violence can also be reinforced by social and cultural values. 4. Violence can stem from a group’s strength or weakness, its lack of faith in the political  system, or its frustration with economic conditions. Nice and Antiabortion Violence • Nice concludes that antiabortion violence appears in areas of rapid population growth  where the abortion rate is high.  • As social controls decrease, and the desire to substitute political controls increases,  bombings develop into a form of political action. • Deana Rohlinger argues that current media coverage of abortion issues differs from the  1980s and early 1990s.  Homegrown Violent Extremists  • These homegrown extremists are Americans or American residents who adopt the  jihadist philosophy. • Two styles of homegrown attacks: – Radicalized from personal experiences – Radicalized with foreign connection  Homegrown Jihadists  • One of the incubators for homegrown jihadists is the American prison system. • Homegrown terrorism is not an American problem alone, nor is it limited to radical  Islam. – It is a “bottom up event.”  – Some homegrown jihadists are self­recruited, self­motivated, and self­trained.  Creation of Homegrown Jihadists  • Some are born in the United States, and prepare to wage the jihad, even though they have little contact with jihadists. • Others immigrate, and they find themselves alone. • Others, like John Walker Lindh and Adam Gadahn, leave the United States to join the  jihad overseas.  • A third type threatens to become a hybrid form. • The potential hybrid jihadist comes in several varieties. The Future • What type of approach toward domestic terrorism could limit political controversy?  • What is the difference between an actual crime and a potential crime?  • If law enforcement agencies are deeply embedded in communities, how might they use  information about potential terrorism to divert behavior?  Chapter Summary • By definition, domestic terrorists must act outside of the law.  • Therefore, it is better to think about the whole realm of politically motivated criminal  extremism than to look for cases of domestic terrorism.  • Criminal extremism can be described by a typology focusing of political orientation.  • When domestic terrorism is approached in this manner, the results show extremist  activities are currently dominated by anti­government and racist movements.  • Other forms of extremism reveal differing criminal patterns.  • Homegrown extremists may make individual attacks or receive training and support from abroad.   • Single­issue extremists are motivated by one all­encompassing passion.  • Eco­terrorists tend to favor property damage. Nationalists and anti­abortion extremists  are more prone to violence.


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