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HIST 1312-003, Week 6 Notes

by: Miranda Notetaker

HIST 1312-003, Week 6 Notes History 1312

Miranda Notetaker
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These are the notes from 10/3, 10/5, and 10/7.
U.S HIstory since 1865
Bradley Folsom
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miranda Notetaker on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1312 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Bradley Folsom in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see U.S HIstory since 1865 in History at University of Texas at Arlington.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
Highlighted in Blue: important concepts In red: guaranteed to be on the exam (know the year) The Progressive Era 1901-1917  Life gets better o Technology improving o Progressivism (specifically Progressive politics) o Economic growth  Theodore Roosevelt o Background:  Born into a Republican family  Child hero: Abraham Lincoln  Physically & mentally tough (graduated from Harvard with honors)  Kind-hearted, compassionate  Bullier of bullies o A “Square Deal” – Roosevelt wants to make sure everyone has opportunities o Anthracite Coal Mine Strike  1902 – coal miners go on strike for better working conditions  About to be winter (so the people NEED coal)  Teddy tells the boss to talk to the strikers and find out what they want  The bosses want Teddy to send people to break up the strike  Teddy tells the bosses to let his commission go in and find out what the miners want  Give the workers better working conditions, but not exactly what they want (miners go back to work) o Department of Commerce and Labor  Teddy creates it to deal with workers o Trust Buster  Teddy investigates John D. Rockefeller  Violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act o Farming  Over-production is the problem  Hepburn Act – uses Interstate Commerce Clause to regulate railroad prices o Muckrakers – find out bad stories to put in newspapers  Nellie Bly – a muckraker  Goes to a factory and asks for an interview  Hits him with hard questions, which surprises the owner (he thinks “oh, she’s just a woman”)  Wants to investigate mental institution o Gets herself put inside as a patient o Maggots in food, women raped, rats, etc. o Many women are actually sane o After 10 days, writes about the institution  Upton Sinclair – a muckraker  Writes The Jungle o Pushes people to accept socialism o Writes a fiction book about a meat-packing facility o Works in a meat-packing plant (in order to get a realistic setting for his novel) o Teddy hears about it, and investigates a meat-packing plant  Institutes Meat Inspection Act – if you ship meat, you are subject to federal investigations  Food and Drug Act – created the Food and Drug Administration (investigators who go to food/drug manufacturers and investigate to make sure it is legit)  Federal Bureau of Investigation – body of people who investigate crimes o Environment  Teddy sees the environment being destroyed by factories (becomes a Conservationist – wants to conserve the wildlife and nature so the animals can be hunted and so they can observe nature)  Sets aside lots of land that the federal gov’t will not sell  Lumber companies and mining companies outraged  Needs funding so people can go out and make sure there is no one taking the resources o Teddy decides to retire, but says they should vote for William Howard Taft  Taft wins with Teddy’s help  William Howard Taft o Wins the election of 1908 o Trust Buster  Busts 90 trusts (2x as many as Teddy) o Amendments  Taft pushes for the 16 amendment (involves tax percentages based on incomes)  Populist amendments from Taft  17 amendment – Senators will be elected by the people o Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy (Before the 1912 Presidential Election)  Richard Ballinger (US Secretary of the Interior)  Gifford Pinchot (US Forest Service Chief)  Ballinger reverses some of Pinchot’s policies (Restores some acres to private use)  Taft fires Pinchot  Teddy hears about this, comes back, and begins to go against Taft o The 1912 Presidential Election  “New Nationalism”  Teddy wants to regulate all interstate trade, child labor reforms, federal protection for workers, minimum wage for workers, social security system (gov’t provides for the people who cannot work anymore)  Teddy also wants an amendment that says “you cannot take away the right to vote based on sex)  Teddy vs Taft for Presidential Republican nomination  Taft becomes the Republican candidate  Teddy forms his own party  Progressive (Bull Moose) Party o Runs on “New Nationalism” o Teddy’s campaign  Democrat candidate: Woodrow Wilson  History PhD  Grew up in Georgia  Runs on a Progressive Platform (not as Progressive as Teddy, but still Progressive) o Wants to bust trusts o Economic Progressive (Teddy is more Social Progressive)  Teddy’s Campaign  Goes all over the country promoting his campaign  Attempted Assassination o John Schrank  Tries to assassinate Teddy  Doesn’t think Teddy should go in for a 3 term (thinks he is becoming a dictator)  Thinks Teddy killed McKinley (says he saw McKinley’s ghost) o Bullet went straight into Teddy’s chest and doesn’t hit anything vital o Teddy still delivers his whole speech (with a bullet IN HIS CHEST!!) THEN goes to the hospital  Wilson’s Campaign  Doesn’t do much, lets Taft and Teddy destroy each other  Wants the Republican party to split  Taft’s Campaign  Lets people come to him  Businesses campaigning for him  Wilson wins the election!  Woodrow Wilson’s Presidency o Creates the Federal Reserve (body that controls inflation and deflation) o Creates the Federal Trade Commission (regulatory body for interstate commerce) o Social Reforms  Keating-Owen Child Labor Act- federal gov’t requires businesses that use interstate trade not to hire people under 17  Lets states handle women voting rights (not handling it federally) o 1916 Presidential Election  Wilson runs again  Other Important Events o Henry Ford – worked on an idea for a new combustion engine  Works for Edison for a while, but then makes his own company (Ford Motor Company)  Quadricycle (can only fit 1-2 people and is expensive)  Ford develops plans for a better, practical, affordable vehicle – 1903  Assembly line – arrangement of machines and/or workers that passes work along a line (each machine/worker does one job, passed on to next machine/worker) o Ford makes a very efficient assembly line which is steam-powered o Ford pays his workers 2x as much as competitors (happy workers are hard-working)  By doing this, workers are being paid enough to afford a car, so the workers will also be Ford’s consumers  By 1930, around 26 million Americans own an automobile  Believes some human beings are better adapted than others to survive in the modern world (Social Darwinism) o Social Darwinism  People begin to believe that you can tell how well people are adapted to survive by measuring people’s heads, noses, etc.  Eugenics – promotes reproduction between “more evolved” people and looks down on reproduction between to “less evolved” people  “Sterilize” people with mental illness and criminals (makes it so they cannot reproduce) o Hitler believed in this  Readings: Textbook, Chapter 21 The Great War 1917-1920  World War I o Causes  Creation of Germany  That area used to be just a bunch of different city-states who fought with each other  Came together, became Germany  Rulers of Germany began to trade, make a name for themselves, and climbed the ladder to the top  Realizes France and Britain are powerful because of colonization o Germany begins to colonize the areas that are leftover o Invest in weapon technology in order to take over France and Britain’s land  Germany goes to Austria-Hungary and asks them to be allies o Austria-Hungary agrees (Secret Alliance – if war comes, they will have each other’s back) o France and Russia have a Secret Alliance o Britain and France have a Secret Alliance  So basically France&Britain&Russia vs Germany&Austria- Hungary  Serbia wants to expand into the southern part of Austria-Hungary  Franz Ferdinand says they should give the Austria-Hungary Serbians equal representation  Serbia is unhappy, because they wanted the southern part of Austria-Hungary  Serbia starts the Black Hand (assassinate Ferdinand)  The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand  1914 – Ferdinand goes down to southern Austria-Hungary to hold a parade  Attempts to throw a grenade into Ferdinand’s car, but gets the wrong car (man who fails jumps off a bridge to try to kill himself, but doesn’t die)  Ferdinand’s car starts to try to get away  Gavrilo Principe – already deathly sick, so if he gets caught he has to kill himself o Ferdinand’s car isn’t coming his way, so Gavrilo goes off to get something to eat o The car gets lost and pulls up along the street in front of Gavrilo o Shoots Ferdinand and his wife  Austria-Hungary decides to invade Serbia unless they abide by their commands o Serbia has a Secret Alliance with Russia, so they decline AH’s proposal  AH invades Serbia, Russia goes to help their ally, then all the other allies in the Secret Alliances begin to fight


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