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SA 127 Chapter 4

by: Andolina Ziolkowski

SA 127 Chapter 4 SA 127-IC1

Andolina Ziolkowski
Erie Community College

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About this Document

Ethical dilemmas surrounding working with multicultural groups, LGBT members, as well as disabled individuals. This chapter discusses all issues pertaining to working effectively within these group...
Topics in Addiction
Tracey Taylor
Class Notes
multicultural health, diversity, Counseling, Ethical issues, Law and ethics, Disability in World Cultures, lgbt
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andolina Ziolkowski on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SA 127-IC1 at Erie Community College taught by Tracey Taylor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Topics in Addiction in Substance Abuse Counseling at Erie Community College.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 4: Multicultural Perspectives & Diversity Issues Introduction Cultural experiences, values, & assumptions are the basis of your worldview & possible  biases. ­Influences your practice Avoid using your own group as a standard. Practitioners should show sensitivity to the fact that a name is important by asking  clients how they like to be identified & listening for words they use. Key Terms Culture – includes demographic variables such as age, gender, residence, social status, education, economic status, affiliation, nationality, ethnicity, language & religion Ethnicity – ancestry, history, nationality, religion, & race Oppressed Group – group of people who are singled out & regard themselves as  objects of discrimination Multiculturalism – relationship between 2 or more diverse groups Diversity – individual differences that place clients at risk for discrimination Cultural pluralism – perspective that recognizes the complexities of cultures & values  the diversity of beliefs & values Cultural Diversity Competence – practitioners level of awareness, knowledge, &  interpersonal skills needed to function effectively in a pluralistic society Cultural empathy – therapist's awareness of client's worldviews Cultural tunnel vision – perception of reality based on limited set of cultural experiences Microaggression – persistent verbal, behavioral, & environmental assaults, insults &  invalidations that often occur subtly & are difficult to identify The Problem of Cultural Tunnel Vision ­Many instances of racism can be subtle, yet damaging. ­Claiming to be "color blind" to race can ignore a vital part of a person's identity. ­Cultural factors are an integral part of the helping process. ­The culturally encapsulated counselor:  Defines reality by one set of assumptions  Insensitive to cultural variations  Accepts unreasoned assumptions  Fails to evaluate other viewpoints LEARNING TO ADDRESS CULTURAL PLURALISM ­Cultural self­awareness is essential for effective & relevant therapy. ­Knowledge without awareness can cause lack of awareness of your own biases. ­examine your personal assumptions, biases, & values ­Global literacy is a result of lifelong learning. 2 The Challenge of Reaching Diverse Client Populations ­Providers should identify resources in client's family & larger community to use in  delivering culturally sensitive services. ­Oppressed clients may be slow to gain trust with counselors. ­Medical model isn't always a good fit for client's of lower socioeconomical status. ­Consider whether passivity is a problem from learned perspective & whether  assertiveness is useful. Ethics Codes from a Diversity Perspective **Important to integrate culturally responsive practice with traditional modes of therapy. ­Review ethics codes to determine which codes take multicultural dimensions into  account. Cultural Values & Assumptions in Therapy ­Conflicts can arise between traditional counseling values & values of different cultural  groups. ­Must be willing to evaluate & adapt practices to suit client needs ­Can't ignore importance of discrimination & oppression diversity factors. ­Ethical practice requires practitioners to be trained in addressing diversity factors. INDIVIDUALISTIC VS. COLLECTIVISTIC CULTURAL VALUES ­Western cultures often promote independence of self ­some cultures promote/value interdependence over independence 3 ­Many therapy systems reflect common Western cultural beliefs ­The degree of importance of these values to clients needs to be carefully  considered. CHALLENGING STEREOTYPICAL BELIEFS & CULTURAL BIAS ­Practitioners unaware of their stereotypical beliefs, cultural biases & assumptions can  harm clients. ­Cross­culturally competent practice requires professionals be aware of unique cultural  realities of clients. EXAMINING SOME COMMON ASSUMPTIONS ­Must acknowledge our cultural biases, assumptions, stereotypes & experiences to  become culturally competent. ­Co­develop goals with clients to prioritize clients values & cultures. ­Examine how power & privilege operate in counseling relationships ­Economic privilege can lead to misunderstanding if:  Client is always late or missing appointments  Cannot pay  You don't address sociocultural restrictions  Assume lower intelligence, ineffective parenting skills, and/or lower education ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT SELF­DISCLOSURE ­Contemporary therapy values self­disclosure ­This is unacceptable in some cultures. ­Therapist should have understanding & patience 4 ­Some clients have a greater need to develop a relationships before becoming  vulnerable ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT DIRECTNESS & RESPECT ­Directness & assertiveness, stressed in traditional approaches, can be considered rude in some cultures. ­Find other ways to connect ­Consult with colleagues more familiar with client's culture ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT SELF­ACTUALIZATION & TRUSTING RELATIONSHIPS ­Traditional approaches value self­actualization ­synthesis between self­actualization & responsibility to the group may be more  culturally realistic ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT NONVERBAL BEHAVIORS ­Personal space, eye contact, handshaking, dress, formal greetings, perspective on  time, etc are interpreted differently by different cultures ­Silence may be a sign of respect ­Confrontational styles may be intrusive to some clients ­Sensitivity to cultural differences can minimize miscommunication, misdiagnosis, &  misinterpretation. 5 Addressing Sexual Orientation ­Various clinical & ethical issues arise in working with LGBT clients ­recognize societal factors contributing to oppression & discrimination ­Practitioners may cause oppression, especially when using some language ­Heterosexism can undermine healthy functioning of LGBT clients ­APA Div 44 developed guidelines for understanding & acknowledging societal stigma & its effects on clients: 1. Attitudes toward LGB & sexual orientation issues 2. Relationship & family concerns 3. Training & education needed to work effectively with LGBT clients 4. Complex diversity within LGB community ­Competent counselors will develop appropriate intervention strategies ­Respect & attend to the whole individual, not focusing on gender id issues ­Learn community LGBT resources THE ROLE OF COUNSELOR EDUCATORS & THERAPISTS IN CHALLENGING "ISMS" ­Is it within our role to challenge client beliefs & voice feeling offended? ­client may have racist, sexist, homophobic, etc beliefs ­may be appropriate to draw attention to prejudicial beliefs in regards to focus  issues VALUE ISSUES OF GAY, LESBIAN, BISEXUAL, & TRANSGENDER CLIENTS ­It's a mistake to think all LGB clients come to counseling to explore matters of sexual  orientation 6 ­listen to client concerns & what they bring to counseling The Culture of Disability ­People with chronic medical, physical, & mental disabilities represent the largest  minority & disadvantaged group in US ­Counselors must acquire basic awareness & knowledge of working with disability  community & ethical dilemmas that can arise THE DISABILITY COMMUNITY ­Treat the person first, not the disability ­Achieve optimal levels of psychosocial functioning with the individual based on their  abilities. ­Many disabled individuals claim that attitudinal beliefs/barriers are more of a hindrance  than the disability itself ETHICAL CONCERNS IN THE ROLE OF CLIENT ADVOCATE ­Many counselors become client advocates ­most helpful role is to form a collaborative relationships with clients ­can help remove institutional, attitudinal, & sociocultural barriers by raising  awareness ­Help clients gain higher levels of independence Matching Client & Counselor SHARED LIFE EXPERIENCES WITH YOUR CLIENTS 7 ­When counselor & client connect on some levels, cultural & age differences can be  overcome. ­Counselors should develop sensitivity to differences in background & experiences from their clients. HOW TO ADDRESS DIFFERENCES IN THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIPS ­Cultural differences can impede therapy process if not appreciated or understood. ­Differences are subjective, complex, & dynamic ­Clinicians should:  Have training in which multicultural perspective  Agree with client to develop working relationships  Be flexible in applying theories/techniques  Be open to being challenged & tested ADDRESSING UNINTENTIONAL RACISM & MICROAGGRESSIONS ­Be aware of your value systems, potential stereotypes, prejudices, & cultural  countertransference. Racial microaggressions – brief & commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or  environmental indignities; communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights & insults; 3 types 8 1. Microassault – verbal or nonverbal attack including name­calling, avoidance,  intentional discriminatory acts 2. Microinsults – rude & insensitive comments demeaning heritage and identity 3. Microinvalidations – negating, excluding, or nullifying thoughts, feelings, or  realities of a person ­When counselors identify unusual behavior, they should look at the cultural context of  the client. Multicultural Training for Mental Health Workers ­Trainees should take steps to increase competence with groups they plan to serve. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CULTURALLY SKILLED COUNSELOR ­Competence is manifested in recognizing limitations & willingness to:  Seek consultation  Continue education  Make referrals Multicultural competencies – a set of knowledge & skills essential to the culturally skilled practitioner Essential attributes:  Counselor awareness of own cultural values & biases  Understanding client's worldview  Developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies & techniques OUR VIEWS ON MULTICULTURAL TRAINING 4 DIMENSIONS OF TRAINING IN MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING: 9 1. Self­exploration 2. Didatic coursework 3. Internship 4. Experiential approaches EXPERIENTIAL APPROACHES TO TRAINING ­ENCOURAGE TRAINEES TO PAY ATTENTION TO THEIR THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, & ACTIONS IN EXPLAINING WORLDVIEWS. 10


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