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CSTU 101-Western Culture-Week 4 Notes

by: DanielleCuller21

CSTU 101-Western Culture-Week 4 Notes CSTU 101

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Notes for week 4 of Western Culture at Liberty University
Western Culture
Ms. Caitlin Elliott
Class Notes
LU, CSTU, 101, western, Culture
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by DanielleCuller21 on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CSTU 101 at Liberty University taught by Ms. Caitlin Elliott in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Western Culture in Cultural Studies at Liberty University.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
CSTU 101: Week 4: EARLY GREECE   (500­490 BCE) FUNCTIONS OF MYTHOLOGY  Establishes correct models of behavior   Cautions against incorrect behaviors  Answers questions of origin  Develops national identities THE LABRYNTH  From Minoan civilization  Designed by Daedalus for king Minos to contain the minotaur  Daedalus knew the maze, so he and his son Icarus were imprisoned  In another myth, the minotaur is killed by Prince Theseus of Athens o Daedalus tells Theseus to use a spool of wool to find his way out o Didn’t change the sail from black to white (black sailed ship was the symbol for  those taken and thrown into the labyrinth as punishment for King Minos’s son’s  death in Athens. People of Athens were regularly taken and thrown into the  labyrinth and left to die. Theses went to kill the Minotaur and, although he  succeeded, the sails were never changed from black to white, So Theseus’s father  though his son had died, and then killed himself)  Myths and epic hero­ideal personhood VALUES  Freedom: representative government  Individuality: focus on the personhood vs the tribe  Rationalism: human reason as authority   Beauty: appreciation of the human form  THE ODYSSEY   Greek epic written by Homer (maybe)  Composed during the Greek Dark Ages  Takes place in the aftermath of the Trojan War  FATALISM AND RATIONALISM  Fatalism and Greek theology centered on fundamental injustice o The gods live in luxury on Mt. Olympus while humans live in misery at the god’s  whim o Try to control what little you can but do so responsibly (Icarus)  o The Fates: Clotho, Lachesis, Atropos  Clotho: Spun thread of life  Lachesis: measured thread of time allotted to people  Atropos: Cutter of the thread of life (chose when and how someone died)  HELLENISTIC GREECE  323­146 BCE Alexander the Great’s death to the Roman conquest of Greece   479­323 BCE Classical Greece, Greeks were at their peak performance  323­146 Hellenistic Greece, Greek culture is being spread through neighboring cities  Hellenistic Greece: Hellenization is the effect to spread Greek influence   Spread through development of libraries that function as centers of learning   Philosophers from Greece were encouraged to visit and lecture (unique desire for cultural exchange) PHILOSOPHY  Epicureanism: tame hedonism   Stoicism: suppressing emotion  VISUAL ART  Focus on freedom   Instead of order  Art became more emotional and expressive   The patronage of the arts began in this time period  Sculpture: Lacoon is being punished by the gods for attempting to warn the Trojans about the gift of the Trojan horse  Content is similar but it has more emotion  THE ROMAN STORY  Humble origins: came from Indo­European tribes   Emerged around the same time the Greeks were coming out of the dark ages  Etruscans governed them  IMPERIALISM   The belief that the superiority of one’s own culture and the belief that one should even  take and impose their culture and it’s values on other people, eve by force if necessary   Picked parts of other cultures and brought them into their own  THE AENEID: o Written by Virgil between 29­19 BCE (written for Augustus)  o Virgil hated it and was very dissatisfied with it  o Takes place after the Trojan war o Aneas was willed by the gods to found Rome The Aneid The Odyssey  Aneas: ideal Roman man  Odysseus: ideal Greek Man  Duty to country over all else  Nonchalant  Determined  Crafty  Courageous  Cunning   Reverence to the gods  Original/unique  Strong  Cavalier in view of the gods  Cares for men: Unity/community   Wise  individualistic ROMULUS AND REMUS  Rhea Silva (daughter of the king of Alba Longa) conceived twins by the god Mars  When Alba Longa was invaded the new king forced Rhea Silva to abandon the twins by  the Tiber River  A she­wolf found them and raised them  753 BCE founded city of Rome at the bend of the Tiber  The auguries (The Augurs: Priests of early Rome) were used to determine who would be  king  The boys fought and Romulus won the battle, Remus was killed  Rome was founded with Romulus as king ECLECTISISM  A cultural “melting pot”   Eclectic: something that is made up of or combined from a variety of different sources   Roman Pantheon vs. Greek Parthenon (similar but different, pieces of Greek culture  borrowed and added to Roman culture) RELIGIOUS ECLECTISISM  Not based on any central belief, but a mixture of fragmented rituals, taboos, superstitions, and traditions collected over the years from a number of sources  Many gods and goddesses came from their Greek colonies and others came from  Etruscan or Latin tribes ROMAN PRATICALITY  Where the Greeks were “thinkers” the Romans were “doers”  Technological advancements, aqueduct, bath houses, highway systems  Romans were much more materialistic than idealistic   Romans invented the Arch (supported more weight)  Arch of Triumph: When a Caesar would return to a city in triumph that is where he  would enter through (the arch had to be grand, because Caesar was grand) ROMAN PAGANISM  Sometimes origins of deities became so melded that people forgot who they represented  The goddess Furirina’s festival was on the 25  of July and by the 1  century BCE no one  remembered what she was the goddess of but they continued to celebrate the festival  Strong sense of superstition PRAYER AND SACRIFICE  Prayer to household gods or visit the temples to make sacrifices  Pray to ancestors and/or household spirits  Often scarified dead animals and sometimes gave food as a sacrifice  Used to favor good things and prevent bad things from happening OMENS AND SUPERSTITIONS  The Romans were quite wary of the gods, most likely passed down from their Etruscan  ancestors  Citizens would have “omens read” from nature  Children were also told of creatures or ghosts that would prey on them if they did not  behave  Many Romans wore amulets to advert evil spirits  Mythic manipulation 


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