Chapter 17 Part 1
Chapter 17 Part 1 Hist 350
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 350 at University of Baltimore taught by Dr. Boram Yi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see History of Modern China in History at University of Baltimore.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 17 Ashley Jenkins October 2, 2016 World War II Chapter 17 Loss of East China Spring 1937: period of calm GMD and CCP embraced a United Front with the goal of defeating the Japanese and forcing them from China. Common enemy: there would be no china to be ruled by either if it was ruled by Japan. Japanese were undergoing a change in their own government The Chinese army was growing more confident and more resistive. May 1937 American Ambassador wrote that anti-Japanese sentiments were part of the Chinese racial consciousness. Large and Small events came together Japanese Premier failed to get economic policies through parliament. Replaced by a government headed by Prince Konoe. Japan’s commanding general in North China had a heart attack. Replaced with a less experienced subordinate. Chinese troops near Marco Polo Bridge strengthened shoreline defenses. Had a railway bridge built alongside it. Key supply line. Southern lines with the junction town of Wanping were controlled by Nationalist Forces. Japan conducted maneuvers in the area th, Boxer Protocol 1091 July 7 1937 Japanese chose to make the bridge the base of a nighttime maneuver Authorized to fire blank cartridges into the air to simulate combat conditions Chinese fired some shell into the Japanese’s assembly area without causing causalities. Did not know that Japan was running a drill our using blanks. The Japanese soldier was missing in the morning, assumed he had been kidnapped by Chinese for information. Japanese commander ordered an attack on Wanping. Can be considered the first battle of WWII Chinese rail troops rose to the occasion and launched an attack on Japanese position Beaten. Over next week uncoordinated negotiations, statements & counterstatements local military commanders on both sides. National governments in Peking and Tokyo. Regional commanders on both sides. Japanese War Ministry called for mobilization of troops to North and Central China Chiang Kai-shek ordered mobilization of troops around Baoding Japan wanted an apology, thought all of the faults lied with China. Chaing Kai-Shek stated that situation with Japanese must remain Status Quo If they lost any more territory they would be guilty of crimes against their own race. July 27 Local leaders seemed to be working on withdrawal arrangements fighting erupted at the Marco Polo bridge. Japanese troops seized the bridge By the end of July, they had seized the entire Tianjin-Peking region. “only course open to us now is to lead the masses of the nation, under a single national plan, to struggle to the last” Chiang Chiang decided to deflect the Japanese from campaign in north China Launched an attack on their forces in the shanghai area. Chaing had the best of his German-Trained troops here. Outnumbered the Japanese in Shanghai 10:1 Tookthhe precaution of constructing safe houses/bases along the way if they had to retreat August 14 Chaing ordered air force to bomb Japanese warship that were anchored off the docks. Japanese intercepted and decoded message and Chaing lost the element of Surprise Planed missed their targets and ended up bombing the city and killing hundreds of civilians. Japan declared it was forced to take resolute action to bring some sence to the government in Nanjing. Japan sent fifteen new division troops to north and central China. Chaing ordered his troops to take Shanghai at all costs, lost. Failed to penetrate Japanese defensive perimeter Shelled continuously by Japan, from air, sea, and ground. 250,000 Chinese troops were killed or wounded. Japan took 40k casualties. Japanese broke Chinese line by landing at Hangzhou Bay and threatening Shanghai from all sides. November 11 th Chinese began to retreat westward. Horrible order, failed to hold the safe houses and defensive bases they set up beforehand. Retreated to Nanjing Nanjing was under the control of Tang Shengzhi, a former warlord and a GMD politician. Tang had Buddhist spiritual advisor whom he trusted greatly. Advised Tang to accept the task of directing city’s defenses. Japanese dropped leaflets to the citizens of Nanjing promising to be nice when if they surrendered. th December 12 Tang abandoned the city. He had no plans of evacuation put in place for civilians Had intended to defend the city until his last breath. Military and civilian confusing. th Japanese troops entered the city on Dec 13 . “Rape of Nanjing” Very graphic imagery and stats. pg 401-402. Lasted 7 weeks. “...Nanjing a period of terror and destruction that must rank among the worst in the history of modern warfare.” Left the city in ruins and dead bodies were piled everywhere. Japanese had expected an easy victory with few causalities. They didn’t get that at all. Bored, angry, frustrated, tired War was still undeclared no clear cut goal or purpose. All Chinese regardless of sex or age were victims. Nationalist armies withdrew to the West Wanted to consolidate in Wuhan Fighting continued in central China through the first half of 1938 In April 1938 General Li Zongren, one of china’s best generals, lured Japanese forced into a trap and killed as many as 30k combat troops. Could not sustain the victory and had to retreat Xuzhou fell to Japanese in May. Japan advanced to the west to the ancient capital of Kaifeng Would win them control over some railways Chaing Kai-shek ordered the dikes of the yellow river to be blown up. Flooded the entire area Stalled the Japanese for three months. Destroyed more than 40k northern Chinese villages Killed an unknown number of local peasants End of the summer 1938 the Japanese had assembled the machinery for the final assault on Wuhan. Fighting lasted five months Japanese brought reinforcements by rail from the north. Also by boat down the Yangzi river. In a position to attack from the south as well. Might have fallen sooner if not for the pilots from Russia sent by Stalin to help the Nationalists. Inflicted severe damage to the Japanese Air Force. By October Wuhan was in ruins. Chaing Kai-shek fled the city by plane and left many of his troops to lead a retreat. Japanese took the city on October 25 1938 Four days before Japanese troops landed and took Canton. Chaing Kai-shek had lost de facto control over the whole of eastern China Most fertile and industrious area of China. China Divided In 1938 the area was divided into 10 separate major units Manchukuov (J) Inner Mongolia Federation (j) Northeast China (J) East-central China (J) Taiwan (J) Chongqing (GMD) Communist base in Shaanxi Xinjiang (J) Taiyuan (war lord) Canton (J) Xinjiang Predominantly Muslim Controlled by an autonomous military governor who sought aid from the Russians and then from the GMD. Denied both. Even though china was use to political fragmentation and civil war This renewed the threat that the pressures of foreign imperialism China might end up like this permanently. The fall of Wuhan marked the end of Japan’s first concerted assault of China. Danger of becoming dangerously overexerted. Not enough soldiers to effectively control the regions Japans goal in China Win extensive natural resources to further industrialization Expand new order in Asia under Japans cultural leadership Japanese dream for 40+ years. Japanese plan to develop new regions like Manchukuo with puppet regimes Give japan preferential treatment Anti-communist Provide puppet troops that would patrol their own territories in Japans name. Hopes by weakening the Chinese economy and the fabi currency Japan would further undermine what was left of China’s financial stability. Without a decent financial base nationalists would fall quickly. Manchukuo underwent rapid industrial and military expansion Formation of 2 puppet state in Inner Mongolia Installed through tough Chinese resistance. Xi’an Incident in 1936 and attack on Shanghai in 1937 Japanese decided to let Mongolian nationalism rise Something China had always resisted. Japanese formed a Federated Autonomous Government under the leadership of a Mongol prince aided by a Japanese supreme advisor. rd Mid December 1937. Japanese rushed to established 3 puppet regime Consolidate various governments south of the Wall Provisional Government of the Republic of China Japanese installed former Quin dynasty diplomat Wang Krmin Base in Peking Worked closely with North China Development Company to develop a wide range of industries: North China Transportation Telephone Telegraph company Iron and coal mines Steelworks Harbor facilities th When Nanjing fell Japan moved to install a 4 regime in the area for Central China Liang Hongzui excepted post as president of the new ‘reformed government’ Japan established Central China Development Company Primary task of reconstructing railways Also electric power, waterworks, and motor buses Taiwan was the fifth of these regimes. Taiwan had been a Japanese colony since 1895 Now supplying it with great amounts of industrial products: Wood pulp Chemicals Cooper Food stuffs Air fields, docking facilities, and railways were all expanded Children were thoroughly indoctrinated with Japanese culture and encouraged to learn Japanese instead of their own languages. Those who wanted to preserve their freedoms had 2 choices Joining the Communists Joining the GMD Hundreds of thousands made this decision and made the long and dangerous journey to their new homes. Took machinery and spare parts Books Personal belongings Their own version of the Long March Many urban Chinese had never seen how the peasants lived in the villages. Poverty stricken New customs, languages, and appearance Most people in north and east china did not flee. Strength Resources Will Preferred to face uncertain future with Japanese rule If they left their jobs or land they have no guarantees of finding work
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