New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

1972 Chapter 9 Textbook Notes

by: Bradleigh Jenkins

1972 Chapter 9 Textbook Notes geog 1972

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > Geography > geog 1972 > 1972 Chapter 9 Textbook Notes
Bradleigh Jenkins


Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Covers Chapter 9 from textbook: Carbon Dioxide Notes are written in Cornell style (headers on the left, and bullet point summaries to the right with details, explanations, and examples.
Environment-Society Geography
Professor Travis
Class Notes
geography, Environment, Society
25 ?




Popular in Environment-Society Geography

Popular in Geography

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bradleigh Jenkins on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to geog 1972 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Professor Travis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Environment-Society Geography in Geography at University of Colorado at Boulder.


Reviews for 1972 Chapter 9 Textbook Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 9 Notes 1972: Week 4 Readings Introduction  Average car releases ~150 g/km CO2  Not just cars- also manufacturing, heating & cooling, a lot of daily going-ons of life. Short History  Elemental C only makes up a little bit of CO2  But it is essential to life as we know it Photosynthesis: process of plants making their own energy; takes in CO2 and releases O2 Carbon cycle: how carbon circulates through the earth; specifically we want to look at how carbon in the earth  atmosphere - By removing sediments (e.g. coal, petroleum) and burn them as fuel, we release CO2 much faster into the atmosphere than carbon is being returned to geological storage  Big lesson: Living things have the ability to influence the biochemical and subsequent physical geography of the earth.  “Carbon-based economic activity”: our entire economy is based around energy, energy that is around carbon burning.  Carbon sequestration: capture (hence “sequester”) and storage of C from the atmosphere into the biosphere or geosphere through either biomass, or engineered measures.  We only started measuring atmospheric CO2 in the 50s (see Keeling curve) - Use ice cores from Antarctic & Greenland to see the past.  ~1800s at Industrial Rev. see a huge spike in CO2 Carbon-loading  Greenhouse effect: characteristic of the Earth’s to climate atmosphere; presence of certain gases incl. water change vapor & CO2. This traps and maintains heat, leading to life-conducive temps. - A buildup of gases would mean too much heat climate change  Climate change shifts have consequences for the earth, but it also has victims The puzzle of Chemistry is integral to human life & how we have CO2 built our societies, and subsequently our industry. Two Things About CO2 That Make It Special 1. Ubiquitous: carbon is everywhere and in everything and it is in constant flow 2. Sensitive to economic activity: our social forms are difficult to unlink from our dependence on carbon Chapter 9 Notes 1972: Week 4 Readings as energy.  Seeing its universal and essential nature, how do we stop or stem atmospheric carbon loading? Institutions:  Collective action: cooperation & coordination btwn Free-riders & individuals to achieve common goals and outcomes Carbon  Need joint action, but very little incentive for people to Cooperation actually cooperate Prisoner’s Extreme disadvantage: if one country acted and the Dilemma other didn’t…. Uncertainty!! This is scary, esp. for governments and big groups Accountability: difficult to measure if a country is actually doing its part Really hard to actually enforce Climate  Kyoto Protocol treaties  Intl. climate treaties are really challenging - Again, enforcement is a huge problem, and it has to be voluntary. New  Maybe not necessarily focusing on emissions, but institutions focus on consumption  Local/regional and probably messier efforts would be far more successful, but also not nearly as neat and nice as big national government agreements Markets  Critics of Kyoto: managing emissions rely too heavily on gov’t rather than on economics and trade - Thinking of CO2 flow as connected to economic activity - Economy is working inefficiently if those emitting C are not paying the true costs of their activities Green C  Coase Theorem: thesis based on neoclassical consumption economics; holds that externalities (i.e. pollution) can be most efficiently controlled through contracts & bargaining between parties. - Assumes that costs of getting these contracts aren’t too high. Lawyers be expensive though. - Might not have the same information - How do we determine the monetary cost of carbon, esp. in terms of lifes?  Consumers: consumers could use their consumer votes. Could purchase back their carbon output through offsetting; could buy green products labeled with their carbon content - Ex: accepts a check to counteract the CO2 from a plane flight that will be invested in Chapter 9 Notes 1972: Week 4 Readings renewable energy Carbon Companies controlling the production of goods and markets: cap services have responsibility as well and trade Command and control: forms of regulation that depend on gov’t laws and agencies enforcing the rules; including such things as regulated limits on pollution or fuel efficiency. Contrasts with market- based or incentive-based. Cap and trade: market-based system to manage pollutants where a total limit is placed on all the emissions of a certain jurisdiction; individuals/firms possess transferrable shares of that total. Theoretically leading to the most efficient overall system. Who killed the  Reliance on markets or management institutions atmosphere??? represent a distraction from actual problems  The “system” thus the CO2 emissions benefit the top 1%, furthering; more or less environmental damage benefits Green  Uneven development: geographic tendency w/in consumption is capitalism to produce very disparate economic still conditions, economic activity in certain areas consumption - Those w/ the greatest ability to pay offsets are those not typically affected directly by climate change - A poor farmer does not really have the luxury of a consumer vote.  Capital accumulation: tendency in capitalism for profits and value to flow toward and accrue in specific places, leading to centralization, concentration of wealth and power.  Surplus value: political economic, and Marxist thought; value produced by underpaying labor or over- extracting a resource accumulated by the owners or investors 1. Disconnections between sources and impacts that characterize both carbon cycle and uneven economic development 2. Gap between the power of those affected and that of those causing the effect 3. Importance of sustained consumption to keep production costs low  5 Important Factors that Limit the Overall Effective Potential of Consumer-Based Solutions to Carbon Emissions Chapter 9 Notes 1972: Week 4 Readings 1. Companies must strive for increasing consumption 2. Companies must keep production costs low 3. Carbon cycle marked by disconnections between sources and impacts 4. Uneven economic development also marked by disconnections between sources and impacts 5. Those who have the power to change the market are far removed from the negative effects, probably from their own actions. IN SUMMARY: Bernie was totally right and corporations are ruining the world Critics of Greenwashing: exaggerated/false marketing of a carbon trading product, good, service as environmentally friendly. This is the fad side we see of sustainability - Recklessly profit driven; gets to the point of being reminiscent of colonization  Political economy tends to favor structural drivers, favors public investment in green infrastructure, changes in subsidy structures, strong regulations, green taxes. - These are the same ones that market-based thinking finds the most inefficient Carbon Puzzle CO2 in atmosphere has changed over millennia, conditions for life can be altered by living things Rise of industry meant the rise of carbon-dependent economy and society CO2 conc. in atmosphere + other greenhouse gases contribute to serious and unpredictable global climate change Institutional changes need intl. cooperation through compromise and effective rule change, all things that governments are notably terrible at. Market approaches stress efficiency of green consumption and transferable rights to the atmosphere Political economy perspectives stress inherent limits and undemocratic implications of economic carbon reduction solutions to carbon production problems ultimately rooted in the economy itself. Global climate system can no longer be understood as separate from the global economic system.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.