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BIO160N Lecture on Carbon

by: Trinity Wallace

BIO160N Lecture on Carbon BIOB 160

Marketplace > University of Montana > Biology > BIOB 160 > BIO160N Lecture on Carbon
Trinity Wallace
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Lecture notes on Carbon!
Principles of Living Systems
Art Woods
Class Notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Trinity Wallace on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOB 160 at University of Montana taught by Art Woods in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Principles of Living Systems in Biology at University of Montana.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Lecture Notes for BIO160N  Carbon Carbon­ backbone of life 1. It has a valence of 4, and can make 4 bonds 2. It can form long chains and double bonds  3. Side group diversity  Isomer­ compounds with the same number of atoms that vary in structure Compound­ molecule that is made of 2 or more elements  Organic Compound­ molecules containing carbon ( C )  Ex) CH4  Natural­ derived organism from nature  Synthetic­ man made (lab)  Naturally derived­ humans created them for an artificial product  Allotrope­ different physical forms when the element bonds to itself  Ex) diamonds, graphite ( all C molecules)  Carbon forms covalent bonds generally­ meaning it shares electrons for stronger bonds  Compounds made by ionic bonding are called  salts   Salts:  1. For an ionic compound the formular represents the ratio of elemetns  2. They do not share electrons  3. Salt is the most important electrolyte in our body  4. Preserves food  5. Our nerves fire using sodium  Carbon:  1. There is no limit to the number of atoms in a carbon chain  Polysaccharides­ multiple carbohydrates linked together  Fatty Acids­ long chains of carbon 1. Saturated fatty acid­ chain that is made of only single bonds 2. Unsaturated fatty acid­ have double bond/ or bonds  Hydrocarbons­ molecules made only of Carbon and Hydrogen  1. Few in living organisms  2. They release large amounts of energy  a. Ex) methane, petroleum, and ethane  Petroleum­ tiny sea plants that dies, sank to the bottom of the ocean, where they were held under large      amounts of pressure, where they were left with only the Carbon and Hydrogen  Isomers ­ same chemical formula but differ in the structure (way they were put together)  1. Structural­ have the same chemical formula but require a break in the bond  a. Ex) glucose and fructose (C6H12O6)  2. Geometric­ moving where the side chains are based upon the location of the double bond  a. Cis­ means on the same side of the double bond b. Trans­ have key side groups on the opposite side of the double bond  Retinal­ visual pigment in the rods that allow detections od photons ( it is a cis isomer, then moves to a  trans isomer)  Enantiomers­ isomers that are mirror images 1. They differ in spatial arrangements  2. L and D enantiomers (versions of them)  Functional Groups­ a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a particular compound 1. They change the type of reaction 


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