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ARTH 430 Week 5 Notes

by: Tia Goebel

ARTH 430 Week 5 Notes ARTH 430

Tia Goebel
GPA 3.93

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About this Document

These notes cover the last part of Napoleon's reign, and transitions into Romanticism by Goya and others.
19th Century Art History
Dr. Todd Larkin
Class Notes
Europeanarthistory, napoleon, goya, france, Spain, Romanticism
25 ?




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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tia Goebel on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 430 at Montana State University taught by Dr. Todd Larkin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see 19th Century Art History in ARTH - Art History at Montana State University.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
ARTH 430: 19 th Century European Art History Tia Goebel Week 5 Notes I. Images of Romanticism Charpentier, Melancholy, 1801. David’s student (reference the weeping woman in Oath of the Horatii)  Women had lost sons and husbands from the wars  Weeping and death are themes of Romanticism  Weeping willow and quiet stream, neoclassical portrait  This is in fact sublime – sublime means taking pleasure in the horror and terrible from a safe vantage point  We weep because of how WE feel, not because of how the subject feels  Self-indulgence  Clothed in a way meant to attract the viewer Most famous example of the sublime: Henri Fuseli, The Nightmare, 1781.  Scandinavian horse known for sucking the life out of children while they are sleeping  Incubus (night time demon) on her stomach  Lady Britain in distress because her country is falling apart during the American Revolution ARTH 430: 19 th Century European Art History Tia Goebel Week 5 Notes  People like to be scared Jean-Baptiste Greuze, The Dead Bird, 1765. Pierre-Paul Prud’hon, Divine Justice and Vengeance Pursuing Crime, 1808.  Strange things happen at night  Prud’on was the son of a stone cutter, but was very good at painting  Supported the French Revolution but then turned his sights onto Napoleon  Admired David  Did a lot of work for aristocrats Now, in this painting…  Crime (a man) has stolen a purse and murdered the owner  Commissioned by the Prefet of the Seine (Palace of Justice) Courte Frochot  This painting greeted prisoners as they entered the justice building  Did this mean that it was necessary for the government to scare people??  Concierge (still present today) was from Napoleon’s era, when he placed a spy in every large building, now present in hotels and apartment buildings  Napoleon had an eye for an eye mentality  Joseph Fouche – Minister of Police, frightening man, spoken in a whisper, secretive, did whatever he wanted, plotted against people and executed people without reason  Strict laws were in place – this all ties back to how the government acted and how they strategically used artists  You could not appeal a conviction ARTH 430: 19 thCentury European Art History Tia Goebel Week 5 Notes  People were branded sometimes when they were caught  Authority was more interested in punishing than reforming  Male figure eroticized (remember Death of Bara and check out Guerin, Iris and Morpheus, 1811.)  Looking at the corpse – artist originally looked at using a mother and child instead of a male victim  This would have made it even more reactionary than it already was What does justice really look like? II. The Myth of Ossian Europe in 1812: Napoleon’s Empire was HUGE It encompassed Spain all the way west to Russia and as far south as Italy. In addition, it continued north to part of Norway. Who was Ossian?  Between 1760 and 1763, James Macpherson published the book, Fingal and Termora; in 1765 The Works of Ossian, Son of Fingal, followed  Created quite a stir – more popular than Homer and Illiad  Major characters:  Ossian – blind, melancholic, 3 century Gaelic bard  Fingal – Ossians’s father, warrior-king of Morven (northwestern Scotland)  Roscrana – Fingal’s wife and consort  Oscar – Ossians’s son  Malivian – Oscar’s wife and later Ossian’s companion  Starno of Lochlin – king of Scandinavia and enemy of Fingal  Celtic warriors always fierce and always simple  Making for a good story because of the cultural conflict  Filled with ghostly, phantom-like figures  Called the “homer of the north”  French enjoyed reading this  Napoleon saw this as potential propaganda Alexandar the Great  Homer Augustus Caesar  Virgil Napoleon  Ossian (this is Napoleon’s thought process about the association of literature) ARTH 430: 19 th Century European Art History Tia Goebel Week 5 Notes  With this in mind….Ossian was the greatest literary hoax of the 19 th century.  Took great myths and legends and wove them together - made many up to fill in the gaps Francois Gerard, Ossian Evolking the Shades with his harp on the Banks of the Lora, 1801. Popular with the public…  Used to decorate Napoleon’s Salon at Malmaison (summer house?)  Percier and Fontaine were in charge of the decorating  So what is in this scene?  Ossian is playing the harp  Oscar and Melviana, married and next to him  King and queen on the right  Ghostly/dead figures surrounding Ossian  Water running through – introducing melancholy  First proto-fantasy art??? Getting even weirder… Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson, Ossian Receiving the Ghosts of French in the Aerial Elysium, 1802.  Napoleon may be the balding man, embracing General Desaix (died in an Egyptian campaign)  Within clouds of immortality  French officers present  Victory flies in and has oil and palm leaves, above – a French cock shelters a dove from an eagle (eagle is Russia/Prussia/Austria)  Peace on earth is paralleled with peace in heaven  Failure at promoting Napoleon as a peace-giver (too weird, to complicated, not directly relevant) ARTH 430: 19 thCentury European Art History Tia Goebel Week 5 Notes III. The Myth of Atala A. –L. Girodet-Trioson, Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand, 1809.  Atala was a very popular novel  Created Catholic fervor  Chateaubriand was a political and cultural figure (in the gov. and a painter)  Descended from a noble, Celtic family  Traveled in the United States via a student grant, visited Niagara Falls and Hudson River  Returns from this sublime experience, his sister and mother both die, and he rejoins Christianity  Writes: Chateaubriand, Le Genie du Christianisure (1802) The story… Myth of Atala  It’s a fairly complicated story, but the main point is the girl central to the painting has fallen in love with a Native American, but due to her promise of chastity, she has taken poison rather than to go on living in temptation  About religious devotion over temptation  Die rather than break mother’s vow on deathbed A. –L. Girodet – Trioson, Funeral of Atala (Chactas, Atala and Fr. Aubry), 1808.  Softness and eroticism (remember Girodet’s Sleep of Endymion)  Chactas (the Native American) at Atala’s burial  Priest helping to bury her  Shovel, cross, and cross in the background  To the French – this is what they know about America  Spiritual and evocative writing at the same time!  Women: conform at any cost. Succumb to society’s expectations.  Atala was ‘consumed’ among society – people had to become her. Rene (other male figure in the story) wandered the earth in non- conformity and agony. ARTH 430: 19 thCentury European Art History Tia Goebel Week 5 Notes The Conquest of Spain and Goya I. Napoleon’s Conquest of Spain, 1808-14 II. Goya’s Career to 1800 III. Goya and the French Occupation I. Napoleon’s Conquest of Spain, 1808-14  Continental Blockade – wanted to block French lands from British landings  Napoleon couldn’t quite gain Portugal  In 1805, Nelson (British) sank Spanish and French forces ARTH 430: 19 thCentury European Art History Tia Goebel Week 5 Notes Goya, Family of Carlos IV, 1800.  Visually sums up the weakness of the Spanish monarchy  See picture frames in the back (separating element)  Son in between king and queen - not the king’s son (son of Queen’s lover, Prime Minister Manuel Godoy)  Not trying to antagonize the family in this work (Goya was paid very well)  Goya rivaling Velazquez here (Las Menninas)  Prime Minister shown behind king (back to Goya)  Queen Maria Luisa, King Carlos IV, Crown Prince Fernando  How did Napoleon get Spain? Napoleon tricked them – Napoleon and 20,000 troops asked for permission to go through Spain to liberate Portugal from the British (Portugal royal family fled to Brazil), King Carlos and Godoy were to get a section of Portugal to control, but France clearly used this ‘agreement’ as a trick  France put King Joseph I on the throne of Spain (Bonaparte relative)  Spain resisted French role – known as the Spanish ulcer (guerrilla warfare) II. Goya’s Career to 1800  Born in a small town, dreamed of being a court painter like Velazquez  After failing, went to Italy to study  He designed tapestry cartoons for 20 years (to be put under a loom)  Tapestries furnished royal palaces  Goya is caught between two groups: majos vs. afrancesados  (majos – native artists vs. afrancesados – copiers of the French, sophisticated, educated, everything wonderful is French)  Goya works his way up the artistic latter Goya, Don Manuel Osorio de Zuniga, 1788. ARTH 430: 19 thCentury European Art History Tia Goebel Week 5 Notes  The use of the bird and the cats suggests:  Kid is prey to adults (tiny boy immersed in a very adult world)  Working for the Court of Carlos  Goya eventually has a mental and physical meltdown – gets an ear infection, loses hearing in one ear Goya, The 13 thDuke of Alba, 1795. Goya, the Duchess of Alba, 1797.  The Duchess of Alba “has not a hair on her head that does not provoke desire”….she was detested by the Queen for her flirtations  This is the later portrait – Goya never sold this painting – meant something to him, perhaps he loved her?  Next painting: Spanish painters were not supposed to paint nudes – seized by the Spanish Inquisition (1815), copied Velazquez, Venus Looking into a Mirror (1650)  Detesting of Duchess Alba sealed by her death and the stealing of her wealth and jewels by the king/queen ARTH 430: 19 thCentury European Art History Tia Goebel Week 5 Notes Goya’s prints… Los Caprichos, 1799: A series of 80 satirical prints sold through subscription Capricho: English “caprise” (something arbitrary) = Italian “capriccio” (a sudden leap of the imagination) Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, Plate 43 of Los Caprichos, etching and aquatint  Inscription – fantasy abandoned by reason produces monsters, but united with reason, she is the mother of the arts  Imagination is the life-giving impulse, but reason gives them order and understanding  Owl pokes him with a crayon saying “sketch!”  Nightmares were thought to be a mental disease back then  Carved in copper plate, cutting through resin, acid bath bites into those lines, ink the plate, vice with plate and paper, pulls ink out of lines onto paper, aqua tint areas created the grainy spaces Goya, Hunting for Teeth, Plate 12 of Los Caprichos, 1799  Superstitious practice of gathering teeth from hanged men to cast magic spells ARTH 430: 19 th Century European Art History Tia Goebel Week 5 Notes That Dust, Plate 23  Disapproving of the religiosity  “Look at this people, so high in virtue, treating an punishing a man this way” Goya, The Chinchillas, Plate 50  Learn and hear nothing (blindfolded and ears locked) A Fine Teacher! Plate 68.  Alludes to prostitution, witch teaches young witch to fly a broom (have an orgasm) Blow! Plate 69.  Metaphor for the Inquisition – those were punishing  Eating baby flesh  Using a language vague enough to get away with the messages III. Goya and the French Occupation ARTH 430: 19 thCentury European Art History Tia Goebel Week 5 Notes Goya, The Second of May 1808, 1814. (taking place at the Puerto del Sol)  Commissioned by Fernando  As the royal family was leaving the city (escorted by the French)  The majos attacked the party moving down the road  A riot ensued – French soldiers killed  General Marat (French) set other soldiers loose, thousands massacred in the street It’s companion piece… Goya, The Third of May, 1808. 1814.  How do you tell the French from the Spaniards in this painting?  French are faceless, in uniforms, and carrying weapons  Martyrdom portrayed here Goya’s later life – reclined to a house outside of Madrid with is mistress and couple of kids Goya’s Black Paintings (still a mystery as to whether they are his or not…) (Goya pretty much deaf at this point) ARTH 430: 19 thCentury European Art History Tia Goebel Week 5 Notes Goya, The Dog, 1820-23. Goya, Saturn Devouring His Children, 1820-23.  God of agriculture, mother nature says that one of Saturn’s children will take Saturn’s place, so Saturn devours his children


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