Medical Ethics Lecture 3
Medical Ethics Lecture 3 Phil 164H
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Phil 164H at University of Massachusetts taught by J. Dixon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Phil 164 - Medical Ethics I University of Massachusetts, Amherst Professor Dixon Lecture 3 Review of Moral Theory 1. Right vs. good John 2. How they relate Rawls Right --------- Connected with Structure ------------ Good Moral Theory Schema Principle of Right --------- Structure ---------- Principle of Good/Value (What is right?) (What has intrinsic value?) Practical Aim Theoretical Aim Right - narrow/broad - obligatory and/or optional - actions Good - intrinsic value - because of features with inherent value - things Value-based moral theories - theory based in principle of right Duty-based moral theory - based on duties and rights 1. Consequentialism --------------------------------> Utility - Consequentialism - value hedonism a. Value-based moral theory Hedonistic Utilitarianism b. Alternative actions c. Comparative theory of right action d. Maximizing theory of right action e. Impartialist moral theory Key for above table C = Act consequentialism U = principle of utility 4 Basic Goods = 1) human life 2) human knowledge 3) human procreation 4) human sociality DDE =Doctrine of Double Effect=1)permissibility 2)necessity 3)nonintentionality 4)proportionality 2. Kantian Moral Theory - capture spirit of the Golden Rule Categorical Imperative - Duty - Dignity 1) Humanity Formulation - right if action treats people as ends and not as means 2) Universal Law Formulation - right is you can consistently conceive and will everyone doing it 3. Rights Based moral theory vocab ● Right - entitlement to be free to engage in something, to exercise power, or be provided with some benefit ● Negative right - entitlement to noninterference (free speech) ● Positive right - entitlement to be provided something (emergency medical care) ● Rights holder ● Rights addressee ● Content of a right ● Strength of a right - how it compares to other rights ● Rights infringement - justifiably going against someone else’s rights ● Rights violation - unjustifiably going against someone’s rights ● Moral/human rights ● Legal rights ● Basic rights ● Non-basic rights Rights and Moral Theory ● Rights are fundamental to theory ● There are also rights focused approaches ● Duty based theory a) Right if it doesn’t violate someone’s rights b) Unless it is not possible to respect all rights - do it in the best way possible Must use Moral Judgement Moral Judgement - Rights based theory - Basic Rights 4. Virtue Ethics ● Virtue - trait of character that involves dispositions to act and is central in the positive evaluation of a person ● Vice - trait of character that involves dispositions to act and is central in the negative evaluation of a person ● Right if ti si what a virtuous agent would do ● Based in character of person not if action is right or wrong Moral Judgement - Virtue Ethics - Virtues
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