History 102, Week 6 Notes
History 102, Week 6 Notes History 102
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Anderson on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 102 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Mr. Chester in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
History Notes: Week 6 Changes in 17 century Gentry controlled the House of Commons o They pursued aggressive economic and foreign policies Navigation Acts of 1651 o Took raw materials from colonies and used colonies as markets for British industrial goods which led to a larger middle class Raw materials and goods were imported and exported in English/British ships o Expansion of agricultural production, especially because of an enclosure movement (the transformation of scattered strips into block fields) forcing fields, and the reclamation of unfilled waste areas, draining of bogs/swamps for additional farmland o Damaged the poorer residents of villages who depended on land designated as “Common land” for grazing as well as food Agricultural Revolution o Regulation, restrictions on economic activity and the moral economy swept away beginning in the second half of the 17 century Downside of “progress” – the little people get hurt (suffer) o These developments were important for the preparing Britain for the industrial revolution Thomas Hobbes and John Locke Political philosophy is important Hobbes and Locke are “contract” theories Remove God from politics Their starting point: before government exists, people live in a state of nature Government/the state is an artificial creation The product of a contract among people Authority derives from the contract Sovereignty = ruler, selected by the people (elite) Hobbes – Leviathan Suggested a negative views of human nature Worst thing is anarchy If a ruler is unfit, the people must bear with him Revolution = anarchy, Hobbes is against it help create modern political conservatism Locke – 2 Treaties of Civil Government Purpose of Government – make life safe and secure Declaration of Independence: preserve life, liberty and property Positive view of human nature Ultimately, the people (elite) decide on their ruler and can change the ruler if he’s tyrant Absolute power is akin to slavery Defender of the Glorious Revolution and the interests of England’s propertied classes help create liberalism Absolute Monarchy in France Henry IV of France (15891610) o 1 Protestant King of France but switch to Catholicism in order to be King and live in Paris (the capital) o 16 century Religious strife: Catholics vs Huguenots (Protestant) o 1598: Edict of Nantes: Gave limited tolerations to Huguenots Limited area to practice their religion Still had to pay taxes (tithes) to the Catholic Church o He was assassinated by Francois Ravalli Louis III of France (16101643) Bourbon Dynasty He was depressed and not a good ruler Strengthen absolute monarchy but a weak king Cardinal Richelieu (16281642) o 1 prime minister (the best) o Realpolitik – stress on realism, pragmatism in politics, favoring power and practical considerations over ideals and ideology The ends justify the means Thirty Years’ War (16181648) o Catholic France entered the on the Protestant side why? Destructive especially in Germany Political entity: Holy Roman Empire (Austria and Spain) If Holy Roman Empire win then they have total power If Holy Roman Empire lose, they become extremely weak and France will be the next powerful empire King’s power was limited to just the capital area and the nobles ran the countryside, so France was not unified as a country Richelieu use intendants – royal commissioners to reduce the power of nobility Louis XIV of France (16431715) Also known as the Sun King 5 years old when he became ruler Rule for 72 years as king Quintessential Absolute Monarch Relied on Cardinal Jules Mazarin as 1 prime minister (16421661) until he was old enough to rule as king Exerted his power using propaganda o Ex: stories about him going to the countryside in his chariot and an ill man touch his cloak and he was instantly healed. The nobles try to make a comeback and did demonstrations that terrified King Louis o His main priority as king was to tamed his nobles He took middle class people and give them jobs that were for the nobles, who did not approve at all. o Need cash and personals He would make a deal with the middle class, they will give him money and he will give them jobs in the court o Nobility of the robe (middle class), Nobility of the sword (nobles) o Increased power at the expense of nobility Boosted French culture o Architecture, language, the theatre, science, built a magnificent palace Versailles (former hunting/lodge) with 17,000 acres, 1,400 fountains, and 2,000 statues o French language became a worldwide language in science Stupidity o Religious Policy (1685): Revoked the Edict of Nantes 1) Convert to Catholicism 2) Leave France 3) Stay but get persecuted This backfired because 3,000 Huguenots (middleclass mostly) left with their skills and went into France’s enemy land He made his enemies stronger o Loved war too much – at war almost continuously from 1667 During this time Charles II of Spain has died and did not have and heir so he give his throne to Louis’ nephew o Philip II of Spain This gave Louis a happy thought because he can take over Spain through his nephew But the rest of the Europe didn’t not like this at all, they feared that if Louis gets Spain he will have total power over Europe Final War: War of a Spanish Succession (17011714) Disaster for France France & Spain vs Much of Europe (England/Britain, Poland, Austria, Russia, and Hanover, etc.)
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