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History 102, Week 6 Notes

by: Whitney Anderson

History 102, Week 6 Notes History 102

Whitney Anderson
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
GPA 3.0

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France Monarchy
World Civilizations II
Mr. Chester
Class Notes
monarchy, france
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Anderson on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 102 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Mr. Chester in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
History Notes: Week 6 Changes in 17    century   Gentry controlled the House of Commons o They pursued aggressive economic and foreign policies   Navigation Acts of 1651 o Took raw materials from colonies and used colonies as markets for British  industrial goods which led to a larger middle class   Raw materials and goods were imported and exported in  English/British ships o Expansion of agricultural production, especially because of an enclosure  movement (the transformation of scattered strips into block fields) forcing  fields, and the reclamation of unfilled waste areas, draining of  bogs/swamps for additional farmland  o Damaged the poorer residents of villages who depended on land  designated as “Common land” for grazing as well as food  Agricultural Revolution  o Regulation, restrictions on economic activity and the moral economy  swept away beginning in the second half of the 17  century   Downside of “progress” – the little people get hurt (suffer) o These developments were important for the preparing Britain for the  industrial revolution  Thomas Hobbes and John Locke Political philosophy is important  Hobbes and Locke are “contract” theories  Remove God from politics   Their starting point: before government exists, people live in a state of nature   Government/the state is an artificial creation   The product of a contract among people   Authority derives from the contract  Sovereignty = ruler, selected by the people (elite) Hobbes – Leviathan   Suggested a negative views of human nature   Worst thing is anarchy   If a ruler is unfit, the people must bear with him   Revolution = anarchy, Hobbes is against it help create modern  political conservatism  Locke – 2 Treaties of Civil Government   Purpose of Government – make life safe and secure  Declaration of Independence: preserve life, liberty and  property  Positive view of human nature   Ultimately, the people (elite) decide on their ruler and can change  the ruler if he’s tyrant   Absolute power is akin to slavery   Defender of the Glorious Revolution and the interests of England’s  propertied classes help create liberalism  Absolute Monarchy in France    Henry IV of France (1589­1610) o 1  Protestant King of France but switch to Catholicism in order to be King  and live in Paris (the capital) o 16  century Religious strife: Catholics vs Huguenots (Protestant) o 1598: Edict of Nantes: Gave limited tolerations to Huguenots   Limited area to practice their religion   Still had to pay taxes (tithes) to the Catholic Church  o He was assassinated by Francois Ravalli  Louis III of France (1610­1643)  Bourbon Dynasty   He was depressed and not a good ruler   Strengthen absolute monarchy but a weak king   Cardinal Richelieu (1628­1642) o 1  prime minister (the best) o Realpolitik – stress on realism, pragmatism in politics, favoring  power and practical considerations over ideals and ideology  The ends justify the means   Thirty Years’ War (1618­1648) o Catholic France entered the on the Protestant side why?   Destructive especially in Germany  Political entity: Holy Roman Empire (Austria and Spain)  If Holy Roman Empire win then they have total power  If Holy Roman Empire lose, they become extremely  weak and France will be the next powerful empire  King’s power was limited to just the capital area and the  nobles ran the countryside, so France was not unified as a  country   Richelieu use intendants – royal commissioners to reduce the power of  nobility  Louis XIV of France (1643­1715)  Also known as the Sun King   5 years old when he became ruler  Rule for 72 years as king   Quintessential Absolute Monarch   Relied on Cardinal Jules Mazarin as 1  prime minister (1642­1661) until he was  old enough to rule as king  Exerted his power using propaganda o Ex: stories about him going to the countryside in his chariot and an ill man  touch his cloak and he was instantly healed.  The nobles try to make a comeback and did demonstrations that terrified King  Louis o His main priority as king was to tamed his nobles   He took middle class people and give them jobs that were for the  nobles, who did not approve at all. o Need cash and personals  He would make a deal with the middle class, they will give him  money and he will give them jobs in the court  o Nobility of the robe (middle class), Nobility of the sword (nobles) o Increased power at the expense of nobility   Boosted French culture  o Architecture, language, the theatre, science, built a magnificent palace  Versailles (former hunting/lodge) with 17,000 acres, 1,400 fountains, and  2,000 statues  o French language became a worldwide language in science   Stupidity  o Religious Policy (1685): Revoked the Edict of Nantes   1) Convert to Catholicism   2) Leave France   3) Stay but get persecuted   This backfired because 3,000 Huguenots (middle­class mostly) left  with their skills and went into France’s enemy land   He made his enemies stronger  o Loved war too much – at war almost continuously from 1667  During this time Charles II of Spain has died and did not have and  heir so he give his throne to Louis’ nephew o Philip II of Spain  This gave Louis a happy thought because he can take over  Spain through his nephew  But the rest of the Europe didn’t not like this at all, they  feared that if Louis gets Spain he will have total power over  Europe   Final War: War of a Spanish Succession (1701­1714)   Disaster for France   France & Spain vs Much of Europe (England/Britain, Poland, Austria, Russia, and Hanover, etc.) 


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