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biology week 6 notes

by: Brooke Martin

biology week 6 notes Biol 2108k

Brooke Martin
GPA 3.9

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Principles of Biology II
Class Notes
plants, Biology, GSU
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Martin on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2108k at Georgia State University taught by Brewer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology II in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Biology 2 MW 12:00 PM Week 6 Notes September 30, 2016 CHAPTER 30 EVOLUTION OF PLANTS  Bryophytes – spore plants without vascular system  Lycophytes/ferns- spore plants with vascular system  Gymnosperms – vascular plants with seeds  Angiosperms – vascular plants with flowers, fruits and seeds PLANT LIFE CYCLE Phase Multi or Haploid or Produce or Through what unicellular diploid grow into process Sporophyte Multicellular Diploid Spores Meiosis Spores Multicellular Haploid Gametophyte Mitosis Gametophyte Multicellular Haploid Gametes Mitosis Gametes Unicellular Haploid Zygote Fertilization Zygote Unicellular Diploid Sporophyte Mitosis  Haploid – one set of chromosomes  Diploid – two sets of chromosomes  Mitosis – conserves chromosomes o Haploid → haploid o Diploid → diploid  Meiosis – half the chromosomes o Diploid → haploid  Fertilization o Haploid → diploid  Sporangia – multicellular structure in which haploid spores are formed by meiosis  Sporopollelin – protective coat o Helps the spores not dry out  ) Fertilization Mitosis Mitosis Meiosis Mitosis BRYOPHYTE LIFE CYCLE  Gametophyte is dominant in cycle  Sporophytes depend on gametophytes  Water necessary for fertilization  disperse via spores in sporangiumtated by rain LYCOPHYTE (ferns) LIFE CYCLE  sporophyte is the dominant in cycle  sporophyte is physically larger than gametophyte and because its photosynthetic production is much higher than that of the gametophyte  water necessary for fertilization o sperm swim in water  disperse via spores on underside of leaf  compared to bryophytes: o difference: gametophyte and the sporophyte generation of lycophytes able to supply its own nourishment o Similarities: disperse via spores, water necessary for fertilization GYMNOSPERMS  Vascular plants that produce seeds  Sporophyte dominant stage in life  Gametophyte dependent on sporophyte  Gametophytes o Megaspores = female gametophytes = cone o Microspores = male gametophytes = strobilus  Sperm transported to egg via pollination  Pollination vs fertilization o Bringing male gametophyte to female carried by air o Advantages: ensures seed protection o Disadvantages: adaptability reduced , new characteristics seldom  Dispersal via winged seeds ANGIOSPERMS  Sporophyte dominant stage in cycle  Gametophyte depends on sporophyte  Gametophyte o Female = ovary sac in ovary o Male = pollen grain in anther  Ovules develop into fruit following meiosis o One haploid spore develops into the female gametophyte  Following meiosis each haploid cell develops into a male gametophyte o When pollen mature anther ruptures  Imperfect flower – missing parts o Male missing pistils o Female missing stamen  Perfect flower o Contains all parts  Parts o Petals – attract pollinators, outer whorl o Sepals – protect development, outer whorl o Stamens – inner whorl, the male fertilizing organ of a flower, o Carpels – inner whorl, ovule producing sporangia o Stigma – where pollen must land to reach ovule o Anther – produce pollen  Pollination via animal pollinators or wind pollination  Steps of pollination o Pollen lands on stigma o grow down style o Female gametophytes produce chemicals that guide pollen  Double fertilization o Ond sperm from male gametophyte fuses with egg = diploid zygote o 2 sperm fuses with two haploid female gametophytes = nutritive tissue with in angiosperm  Advantages: production of endosperm  Orgin of fruit o Ovary wall → flesh o Ovary → fruit o Ovule → seed  Fruit function – protect seed


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