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1972 Chapter 10 Textbook Notes

by: Bradleigh Jenkins

1972 Chapter 10 Textbook Notes geog 1972

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > Geography > geog 1972 > 1972 Chapter 10 Textbook Notes
Bradleigh Jenkins


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Chapter 10: Trees In Cornell Note format (headers/sections on the left; details, explanations and definitions on the right). Mostly a case study sort of look, goes through the applications of mark...
Environment-Society Geography
Professor Travis
Class Notes
geography, Environment, Society
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bradleigh Jenkins on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to geog 1972 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Professor Travis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Environment-Society Geography in Geography at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 10 Notes 1972: Week 4 Readings History of Trees!  Apparently trees puzzle society  have deep historical need to destroy forests and clear land Three Approaches To Look At Forest Decline 1. Population and markets 2. Political economy 3. Ethics  Difference btwn objects in question and the systems and problems to which they (trees) are tied. Trees &  Trees have been central to human civilization civilization  Trees and forests have been romanticized - Godlike, free from the trappings and mess of civilization Climax  Climax vegetation: theoretical assemblage of plants vegetation, arising from succession overtime, determined by disturbance, climatic and soil conditions secondary  Disturbance: Event or shock that disrupts an ecosystem, succession leading to recovery or movement to a new state of being  Succession: Ecologically, idealized tendency for disturbed forests to recover through stages of species invasions and growth; progressing to grasslands to shrubs and eventually back to trees. Conservation: minimize disturbances whenever possible and allow areas to recover through stages of succession after such events by preventing human intervention. - Some species require disturbances to function well - Not a good assumption that no disturbances are a good thing How much forest Acid rain: deposition of rain/snowfall with unusually high now? acidity; emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen into the air. Urbanization has people on less land, agricultural intensification means less land used as well. Ecosystem services: benefits that an organic system creates through its function; food resources, clean air, water, pollination, carbon sequestration, energy, nutrient cycling, etc. Biodiversity: total variability with an area; a measure of the health of a given area Preservation: management of a resource or environment for protection and preservation Trees, people & Forests regrow on their own biodiversity Big chunks of trees are not apart of forests Reconciliation ecology: science of Chapter 10 Notes 1972: Week 4 Readings imagining/creating/sustaining habitats, productive environments and biodiversity in places used by people Puzzle of trees  History of human activity on the land 1. Trees have come to stand in for all environmental changes; useful conservation target, but also distracts from other trends 2. Trees are excellent indicators of economic growth and expansion 3. Trees can also recover 4. Basic part of human life Forest Transition  Induced intensification: thesis predicting that where Theory (FTT) agricultural populations grow, demands for food lead to technological innovations  increased food production on the same amount of land  Market response model: model that predicts economic responses to scarcity of a resource will lead to increases in prices that will result either in decreased demand, or increased supply or some combo of both  Secondary succession: regrowth of vegetation and return of species to an area cleared, reduced by disturbance. Forest recovers its “climax vegetation” cover after a fire.  Forest Transition Theory: model that predicts a period of deforestation in region during development; forest is a resource, land is cleared for agriculture, return of forest once the economy changes and the people leave. Limits of U-curve Later forests are less diverse, have less biomass Some forests grow really slowly Could be argued that the decline of forests is linked to the recovery of another  economic activity moves from a developed country to a developing one. The developed country can now regrow its forests, but the forests in a developing country now have to go to support the economic wealth that is still there. Accumulation &  Primitive accumulation: Marxist thought; direct deforestation appropriation by capitalists of natural resources and goods from communities that historically tend to hold them collectively.  Political economy: deforestation is a symptom of inevitable crises in capitalist agriculture Deforestation & Tendency for the value from agricultural development to uneven accumulate in faraway places development - Ex: bananas are grown in S. America, HQ and corporate in USA and Europe. Chapter 10 Notes 1972: Week 4 Readings  It is a luxury to subsidize forest regrowth in Europe and N. America  The forest recovery in developed countries depends on the forest loss in other developing countries  Thus, deforestation is simply moved around the globe Should trees  Ecocentrism: environmental ethical stance that argues have standing? that ecological concerns should be held over anything else in terms of decision-making.  Should trees or other environmental entities have rights? What do you Formal legal sense mean by tree Inanimate objects cannot make decisions rights? They cannot speak for themselves Tree rights???  Trees could have guardians or legal representation?  Very very unlike the market approach Anthropocentrism: ethical standpoint that views humans as the central factor in consideration of right and wrong action in/toward nature. Tree Puzzle 1. Extent and composition of global tree cover has (again) varied a lot across the globe and across history 2. Complex and very emotional human relationship to trees & forests  enabled their destruction, now a single-minded focus on their recovery 3. Human activities  forest decline 4. Increased in some areas recently 5. Market approach: FTT, recovery of trees through economic growth & development 6. Political economy: decline is a result of flow of value through commodity production 7. Ethics approach: extension of legal rights to trees


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