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LING 301-Week 4

by: DanielleCuller21

LING 301-Week 4 LING 301

GPA 3.75

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Introduction to Linguistics notes for week four of class
Introduction to Lingusitics
Jared Barber
Class Notes
ling, 301, Linguistics, Introduction
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by DanielleCuller21 on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 301 at Liberty University taught by Jared Barber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Lingusitics in Modern Languages and Linguistics at Liberty University.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
LING 301: Week 4: PHONOLOGY:  You don’t hear sound directly  You perceive sound through the sound system of your native language   Different sounds (pat, spat, tap) but they are different sounds that correspond with the  concept of /p/  Pronunciation is predictable  o Example: [p^h] as in pat is different from [p] in spat  Allophones are complementary distributions of sounds /p/ [p^h] [p] [pp  Completes all of the ways that we can make that particular sound, as shown above with  phoneme /p/ described by it’s allophones  They are context dependent sounds that constitute variants of the same phoneme   Phonemes are the minimal units of distinctive sound structure   Minimal pair: two words that differ in only one sound but it changes the meaning of the  word  o Example: sip and zip  o (s and z are different) o Phonemes differ, allophones do not  Minimal pairs are used to prove phonemic contrast or show contrastive distribution   One of the allophones will define the phoneme (p in the case above)   Phonological rules:   /Phonemic/ representation  Phonological rules  [Phonetic] representation   Phonological rules are responsible for the mapping between the phonemic and phonetic  (AKA allophonic) levels  Account for the predictable properties of pronunciation   All phonological rules have 3 parts o Sound(s) that undergo the rule  o Result of the rule o Environment where the rule applies  Formalizing allophonic variation  o /p/  [p^h]/ #______        in pat (# signifies a word boundary)  o /p/  [p] p / _____#              in tap (# signifies a word boundary)  PHONOLOGY (PROBLEMS) 1. Minimal pair 2. Test for allophones  environment o Example: o Consider the data: compare [i] and [ɛ]  [bid] ‘bead’  [bɛd] ‘bed’  [bĩn] ‘bean’  [lid] ‘lead’  [lɛd] ‘led’  [lip] ‘leap’  minimal pair: two word that have different meanings but differ only in one sound  minimal pair: [bid] and [bɛd]  o Compare [i] and [ɛ]  Contrastive (meaning in word changes based on just that  one sound [bid] is different from [bɛd] Phonemic (contrastive distribution) o Example: o Consider the data above: compare [i] and [ĩ] o No minimal pair o When there is no minimal pair, assume they are complementary or allophones of  the same phoneme (they register as the same sound in the native speaker’s mind) o Make a chart to list the environment that you see each sound in from data: [i] [ĩ] B_d B_n L_d L_p  /i/ is the phoneme because it exists in more environments  Answer is written like this: o /i/ [ĩ]/___Nasal (/i/ becomes [ĩ] before a nasal) o /i/  [i]/ elseware (/i/ remains [i] everywhere else)  (an allophone that only appears between vowels):  o Intervocalically; sounds that change between vowel  DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF PHONEMES:  For two sounds, to contrasts meaning there must be some difference between them  When a feature distinguishes one phoneme from another; it’s a distinctive feature  NATURAL CLASSES:  A group of sounds, which have a particular feature in common that are treated as a  group by the phonology   Can be broad or narrow classes (not detailed vs. details)  Assimilation rule:  o Makes neighboring segments more similar by duplicating a phonetic property  (nasal vowels before nasal consonants)  o Coarticulation: the spreading of phonetic features either in anticipation or in  the preservation of articulatory process  Dissimilation rule: o Languages also have dissimilation rules, in which a segment becomes less like another segment  Segment insertion or deletion rule:  o Phonological rules may also add or delete entire segments  o Adding a segment is known as epenthesis o The rule for forming plurals, possessives, and third person singular verb  agreement in English all involve an epenthesis rule o Deletion is more common o The word memory is pronounced like memry o ə is often deleted  Free Variation: Sometimes there are phonological rules that are different  pronunciations for different people/ same word can be pronounced in different ways  and is still that same word o Example: caramel, economics, etc.  


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