Week 5 notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janaki Padmakumar on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ4014 at University of Florida taught by Abby Fagan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Criminological theory in CRIMINOLOGY at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Week 5 Notes Social control and Bonding theories Social control theory assumes we all are willing to break the law Unlike other theories which look for the cause of crime, this asks why don't people break the law Bond theory says people refrain from crime due to bonds to individuals and institutions o People refrain from committing crime when they have high levels of external or internal control Variation in control, not variation in motivation explains why some people break the law more than others Hirschi's bonding theory Delinquency occurs when bonds are weak Primarily interested in juvenile delinquency Four key elements to the "bond: o Attachment to others Emotional connection to others- emotional relations or commitments that are formed with a group or a person Internalizing others' norms "indirect" control on behavior Ignores possibility of differential associations and negative social bonds with criminals; with Hirschi, all bonds are good bc assumption of positive role models How is attachment measured? To parents: supervision, communication and affection towards kids; how often you talk, affection, how much you care about/love your parents To school: grades, positive attitudes To work: employment history, employment status o Commitment to conformity Peoples "stakes in conformity" prevent them from breaking the law People who make investments into key parts of society such as work or school, are less likely to break the law (rational thought process involved in risk assessment) Awareness of costs/punishments Adolescents might be more prone to breaking the law because they have fewer investments Commitment measurements: GPA, educational goals Career plans Religiosity o Involvement in conventional activities People who are busy with conventional activities don’t have time to engage in crime- the opposite is also true Flaws with the idea? People with full time jobs and occupations still commit crime- white collar crimes; overlap between conventional and criminal activities Doesn’t take a long time with crimes like shoplifting or vandalism- quick crimes easily committed How is involvement measured? How much time do you spend…at work, at school, extracurriculars etc. o Belief in the moral order Beliefs are similar to definitions Attitudes toward the importance of conventional rules/laws ; focus on positive definitions Most people, even criminals endorse pro-social values, norms and laws Bur variation in the extent to which people Believe they should follow rules/laws Believe they should follow rules and laws in ALL situations Measurement of beliefs: How much do you believe that… Its important to go to college Be honest with your parents Laws should be obeyed Why does having a bond to others keep you from committing crimes? When might attachments or relationships be a BAD thing for individuals? How do bonds develop? Social development strategy Social bonding theory Strengths: o Good empirical support for most elements o Clear prevention implications o How to use theory for crime prevention? Programs that allow kids to be linked to positive role models- one on one mentoring; relationship needs to be maintained for at least a year Create involvement in activities- extra curricular activities Programs that promote bonds between youth and teachers/parents Weaknesses: o Not all attachments are positive o Cannot explain relationships between delinquent peer bonding and delinquency Self control theory- general theory of crime (Gottfredson and Hirschi) Lack of self control causes crime Self control is most important cause of crime- predicts all types of crime and non criminal problems Self control and impulsivity: o What is low self control- "now oriented", lack persistence, adventuresome, unskilled, self interested, pleasure-seeking, low tolerance for frustration, high pain tolerance Low self control is related to impulsivity o Marshmallow experiment shows impulsive kids were less successful and more likely to be criminal than those who can delay gratification Self control Determined early on and relatively stable over lifetime (level of self control) Self control is an individual characteristic o Not a biological characteristic- socially determined What affects self control? o Poor parenting causes low self control; good parenting=good self control What do parents do to establish self control? o Monitor child's behavior o Recognize deviant behavior where it occurs o Punish deviant behavior when it occurs
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