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WILD 2050 Week 6 Class Notes

by: Naomi Hampton

WILD 2050 Week 6 Class Notes WILD 2050

Marketplace > Auburn University > Wildlife Studies > WILD 2050 > WILD 2050 Week 6 Class Notes
Naomi Hampton

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About this Document

These notes cover the material from 9/20 and 9/22.
Wildlife Conservation, History and Law
William Gulsby
Class Notes
wildlife, Yellowstone, Pinchot, Forests
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naomi Hampton on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to WILD 2050 at Auburn University taught by William Gulsby in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Conservation, History and Law in Wildlife Studies at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
9/20/16  Jim Shockey o From Canada o Outdoor channel, hunting shows th o NHF Day, September 24  Program that recognizes hunters and anglers for their leadership and commitment of wildlife conservation  2015 Jim Shockey is co-chairman o All animals killed on show are donated to villages and communities where hunt is filmed o Hunter helps with habitat protections, population control  Jennifer Lolley o Extension and outreach coordinator for Louise Kreher Forest Ecology Preserve o Plans and presents educational programs for children and adults o Also cares for live collections housed at the preserve  William Hornaday o 1854-1937 o Avid big game hunter o Worked as taxidermist at Iowa State Ag College o Scientific expeditions to collect specimens o 1882-chief taxidermist of US National Museum o 1886-collect specimens of bison from Montana o Conservation Work  Noticed large herds were practically gone  Used live bison to educate public in the east about the west  Turned into National Zoological park, Hornaday served as first director  Marjory Stoneman Douglas o Born 1890 o Writer, journalist, environmentalist o Defense of Everglades o Became writer for Miami Herald o Joined American Red Cross o After war, stayed in France, became freelance writer o “Defender of the Everglades” o The Everglades: River of Grass  Wrote how everglades connected to Miami River o Spent rest of life defending and restoring Everglades o Died at 108 years old  Saving America’s Forests o Yellowstone National Park just created, wildlife now protected in the park, 3 other national parks established, national forest reserves totaled about 13 million acres o Homestead act of 1862  Allowed US government to get people to move west to develop homesteads and farm land, to increase economic prosperity of country  Had to be a settler, >21 years old, 5 years to improve upon it, at least a 12x14ft house and were given 160 acres of land to improve upon  Thought 160 acres would be enough for people to be successful, not aware of semi-arid conditions  Homesteaders would find they couldn’t be productive from it and would sell it to the first person who offered  Said settlers could stake claim on second 160 acres so they could be more productive  People would deed it to land barons and have their own plot  Land barons had ton of land and money for relatively little cost o Carl Shurz  1877-appointed Secretary of Interior  Understood forestry because he was a German immigrant and in Germany forestry was a career and had education areas  Understood the role of forests in  Erosion  Water quality  Economy  Started to look at exploitation of Homestead Laws and recommended that timber lands be exempted from homestead law  Wanted to forbid public access to timber and protect it with military like parks were  Early recommendations fell on deaf ears o Results of 1800s Logging practices  Wind erosion, gulley erosion  Lost top soil layer  When they cut the timber, they would leave the smaller branches in big piles as they moved to different work sites, piles dried and started wildfires o Fire in a different context  Controlled burns  Propagation and part of life history of different forest types o Franklin Hough  Academy of Sciences  AAAS petitioned president  Grant appointed Hough as Advisor of Forest Affairs  1881-started U.S. Division of Forestry  Ultimately seed to become U.S. Forest Service  Sundry Civil Service Act-1891  Rider on bill  Would allow president authority to execute executive orders creating forest reserves  President Benjamin Harrison created Yellowstone National Park Timberland Reserve  Made lands completely closed off to public  However, no enforcement actually allowed the laws to stand because it didn’t allow the opponents to gain ground with citizens not happy about the laws o Gifford Pinchot  Instrumental in establishing scientific land ethic in U.S.  Member of Boone & Crockett Club  Shrewd, knew what it would take to make those areas effective  1898-Chief of Forestry Division under USDA  Completed forestry program in Europe  Biltmore Estate set up by George Vanderbilt  Forest reserve around it (Biltmore Forest)  Pinchot proved his abilities at Biltmore o National Forestry Commission  Hague and Pinchot vs. Sargent and Abbott  Wise use vs. Preservation  Knew people would fight for what they wanted, would not want politicians coming and telling them what to do  Hague and Pinchot knew that people would revolt if programs went straight to preservation  Grover Cleveland increased acreage from 13 million to over 21 million acres  Western citizens reacted violently to more acres being put under lock and key  Wyoming senator passed bill to remove executive bill for president to be able to create reserves  Pinchot started to make allies to explain how forest preserves could be a benefit to them and be utilized sustainably o Successor(s) to Cleveland  President William McKinley, running mate was Roosevelt  McKinley assassinated after 1 year of office  Creator of Boone & Crockett Club was president  Club had ear in white house, often met with the president  Talked about protecting not only the trees, but the wildlife too  Roosevelt appointed Pinchot national advisor of forestry committee o American Forest Conference-1905  Formed by AFA (American Forestry Association)  Presided over by Secretary of Agriculture  Social process, all interests represented (all different interests, even those against conservation)  Reached consensus that everyone could live with  Created USFS  Bill passed transferring control of forests completely to Department of Agriculture  Marked successful end of Pinchot’s campaign for successful management of forests  86 million acres now considered national forests and placed under foresters that were properly trained and equipped to manage it properly o Letter from Secretary of Agriculture to USFS foresters:  “...where conflicting interests must be reconciled the question will always be decided from the standpoint of the greatest good for the greatest number in the long run.” 9/22/16  Archie Carr o Professor of Zoology o Wrote books and articles pertaining to fields he studied o Specialization in herpetology, began studying sea turtles o Main focus to raise awareness around world for turtles o Sea Turtle Conservancy’s Founder and Scientific Director 1959-1987 o 1994 Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge in Melbourne  Gifford Pinchot o Born 1865 Connecticut o Began studying at Yale in 1885 o Went to Nancy, France to study forestry after graduation o Became resident forester on Biltmore estate for 3 years o Became good friends with Theodore Roosevelt o 1905 USDA Forest Service created and he was appointed first Chief  John James Audubon (1785-1851) o Born in Haiti, son of plantation owner and French sea captain and his mistress o Raised by stepmother in France o 18 sent to America to escape conscription into napoleons army o Lived in Philadelphia o After going bankrupt, went on journey to depict Americas avifauna o Floated down Mississippi o Traveled to England, found publisher for Birds of North America o Worked with mammals and started Viviparous Quadruped s of North America, finished by sons and his friend  Saving America’s Forests: Then and Now o Recap  Homestead Act  Forest reserves increased to over 21 million acres  How did western citizens react?  Pinchot’s role?  When regulations are passed, can we still have conservation issues? o Letter from Secretary of Agriculture to USFS foresters:  “...where conflicting interests must be reconciled the question will always be decided from the standpoint of the greatest good for the greatest number in the long run.” o Malheur National Wildlife Refuge  Ranchers stayed in refuge and created militia  Were using the land for cattle grazing  Jan2-Feb11, 2016  Occupation of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge  Leader, Ammon Bundy, was part of a 2014 standoff in Nevada at his father’s ranch o 20 year dispute between USBLM and his father, a cattle rancher, over unpaid grazing fees, on federally owned land)  Permits provided to land owners for cattle grazing, he did not renew his and continued to graze cattle. In 2014 they closed federal land to roundup and remove the cattle  he claimed ancestral rights to the land  regulated grazing on rangeland to improve conditions  Goals o To turn over federal public land to individual states o Protesting two local ranchers convicted to federal land arson  Federal government owns more than half of the land in the state (and out west) o Ranchers could get permits to graze cattle, cut timber, or work in mines to make a living off the land o Environmental regulations put in place and federal land became more to protect threatened wildlife “than support local people trying to feed their families”-Soper o They felt it was a destruction of way of life o Accumulation of decades of struggle over federal land rights


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