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WILD 2050 Week 7 Class Notes

by: Naomi Hampton

WILD 2050 Week 7 Class Notes WILD 2050

Marketplace > Auburn University > Wildlife Studies > WILD 2050 > WILD 2050 Week 7 Class Notes
Naomi Hampton

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About this Document

These notes cover 9/27 and 9/29.
Wildlife Conservation, History and Law
William Gulsby
Class Notes
wildlife, Plumebirds, conservation
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naomi Hampton on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to WILD 2050 at Auburn University taught by William Gulsby in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Conservation, History and Law in Wildlife Studies at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
WILD 2050 9/27/16  Plume Birds o Recorded what birds he saw on each afternoon o However, these birds were stuffed and on peoples hats, elite shopping area in New York o Seen as disgraceful to not wear a hat and gloves (for women) in public o 700 hats counted in one afternoon o Only 20 whole birds identified o 543 decorated with feathers of some kind o Remaining 158 hats worn:  86 by ladies in morning or elderly  Wouldn’t expect feathers  72 didn’t have feathers when feathers might have been expected o Increase in wealth increased demand for nonessential items (ex. Fancy hats)  As more people wore hats, wealthiest wore even more extreme hats o Most expensive hats had either largest birds or largest most unique feathers  Expanded to fans o Main targets were wading species-herons, etc. o 1902-London auction sold over 1500 packages of hair and plumes (each weighing 30 oz.) requiring around 200,000 herons to be captured and killed  Typically killed during breeding season o Snowy egret very popular  1.5 tons of egret feathers shipped from America to England o Sometimes used turns (bird type), had graceful wings o Birds easy to catch while nesting, were highly valued, people involved in take would even kill game wardens in charge of protecting rookeries o 1 oz. feathers cost $32 o Price was as high as $2,000 (today’s dollars) for 1 oz. o 1886- article conservatively estimated around 5 million birds were killed annually for this trade o American Ornithologist’s Union-collection of first men in America to formally study ornithology  Grinnell published editorials on plume trade, how many were being killed, effect on bird conservation etc.  Said he thinks that even the birds that are legally harvested during season, hunters shouldn’t be able to sell those  Number of states limited bird sales o Problem was when trying to institute the laws in certain areas because of those that profit from the trade o New York was one of first states to completely outlaw kill and sale of wildlife  Could kill the bird in New Jersey and sell it in New York  Established need for law that superseded state boundaries  Only the federal government could create laws that applied across state boundaries o 1900 Lacey Act  Prohibited game taken illegally in one state to be moved across state boundaries to another state and sold  Possession of wildlife or their products subject to the law of the state into which they were moved  Slowed/curved effect of market hunting o 1910 New York passed Audubon Plumage Act  Outlawed all sale or possession of wildlife plumage in that state o Effective with public support o American Ornithologists’ Union (The Auk)  Developed model bird law  Meant to have laws modeled around it when affecting birds and their conservation o State Audubon Societies  Named it after his mentor’s husband  Set up originally to  Could be joined by anyone who: for men- pledged not to kill any birds that would not be used for meat; and for women-to pledge not to use any bird parts for attire, etc. o 1902-National Association of Audubon Societies o G.O. Shields  Spoke out for conservation in his magazine “Recreation”  Avid wildlife protector  Wanted more stringent laws  Shields would publish the name, address and call them “game hogs” of those that sent in photos of the and their huge game catches  1897 founded League of American Sportsmen  Advocated better laws on take of game and nongame wildlife o To stop plume trade, first major piece of federal enforcement legislation (Lacey Act) passed o State now start outlawing sale of wildlife and wildlife products on large scale 9/29/16  Mollie H. Beattie o Born: April 27, 1947; Died: June 27, 1996 o Marymount College, University of Vermont, Harvard University o Program Director/lands manager for Windham Foundation o Commissioner of Vermont Dept. of Forests, parks and Recreation o First women to direct U.S. Fish and Wildlife service o Essential to successful reintroduction to gray wolf in Yellowstone since 1920s o Conservation method-conserve by managing entire ecosystem o Mollie Beattie Wilderness in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge  Tom Rogers o Insurance agent but gained experience in conservation field through writing articles about wild turkeys and smallmouth bass o Founded the National Wild Turkey Federation in 1973 o Partnered with Vernon Bevill o Helped develop International Quail Foundation in 1982 and served as head of Quail Conservation movement o Started organization’s flagship publication called Turkey Call magazine o Set in motion plans to help restore wild turkey populations across the US that are still going on today  Conservation of Wildlife o Plumage as a vanity product o What are modern examples?  Snakeskin boots  Ivory  Bear gallbladders  Shark fins  Deer antlers  Tigers-fur/medicine  Down feathers  Glands from beavers for perfume  Fur export o Modern equivalents?  Illegal wildlife commercialization  Some people kill limited number of animals for personal use  Commercial wildlife trade is huge international business, with goal to make money o Why use wildlife and not something else?  Rarity  ‘natural’ not manmade  Cheaper to find something that already exists rather than make it  Can be renewable resource  Status display o What is CITES  Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora  International agreement between governments  To ensure that international trade in wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival o Countries with most threatened mammals tend to overlap with areas that do not have a lot of money  Those countries with little money have a lot of incentive to easily make money off of those endangered mammals  Problems for poachers and buyers  Could lose those animals completely (not sustainable)  Illegal  Problems with other poachers over limited number of that resource o Pangolin-Artichoke with legs  Mainly in Indonesia  Can only find on particular islands because they cannot reach each other  Commonly found as food product in Vietnam  Scales used for jewelry, armor, medicinal properties  Trade ban approved for 7 species  Do you consider the illegal pet trade commercialization? o Potential to introduce invasive species o Diminishing wild population o Done mostly through the internet o People have been keeping exotic pets for years o Easier to obtain exotics now due to internet, ease of access, transportation, info about individual animals and more targeted o Risk shipping diseases, parasites, non-acclimation, death on trip over, could get caught o Requires shipping thousands of one animal type or product in hopes that one will reach the destination alive, not sick, and not get caught


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