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Chapter 9 Class Notes

by: Jordan Marshall

Chapter 9 Class Notes PSYC 208

Jordan Marshall
Christopher Newport University
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Notes from lecture on Chapter 9
Child Development
Dr. Jarvis
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Marshall on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 208 at Christopher Newport University taught by Dr. Jarvis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Child Development in Psychology at Christopher Newport University.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 9: Early Childhood Cognitive Development; Piaget’s Preoperational Stage (Stage 2, Ages 2­7) I) Symbolic Thought  Symbolic thought­using symbols to represent objects/relationships  Most important type of symbolic thought is language  Symbolic/pretend play o Around 1 year, children may pretend to be sleeping or eating o 15­20 months, focus shifts from self to others (pretending to feed a  doll) o 30 months, objects take on an active role (children pretend a doll feeds itself) o Imaginary friends  65% of preschool age children have imaginary friends  Most common among first born or only children  Children with imaginary friends tend to be less aggressive,  more cooperative, more creative, have more real friends, have  better concentration, and more advanced language  development o Connected to better academic performance, creativity, and social skills o Violent pretend play leads to less empathy and more likely to be  antisocial II) Egocentrism  Preoperational children do not understand that other people may see the world differently than they do  Think in one­dimensional terms (see things from only their own perspective)  “3 mountains test”­experiment that shows how children at this stage relate  information  Causality o Pre­causal­when preoperational children are asked about events they  do not know the natural causes of, those events and are likely to have  an egocentric explanation that is not based on science o Trans­ductive reasoning­children “reason” by relating two unrelated  events o Animism­children attribute life and intentions to inanimate objects o Artificialism­children assume that environmental features are made by  people  Confusion of mental/physical events o At 2­4 years, children show confusion between symbols and things  they represent o They do not realize that words are arbitrary and different words can  refer to the same object  Law of Conservation­properties of substances such as volume, mass, and  number remain the same even if the shape/arrangement is changed o Centration­ability to focus on 2 aspects of a situation at once o Preoperational children are not yet capable of focusing on 2 aspects of  a situation at the same time III) Factors in Cognitive Development  “HOME” environment­Home Observation for the Measuring of the  Environment o Testing tool developed to evaluate the effects of a child’s home  environment on cognitive development o Parent child interactions are directly observed in the home o Better predictor of later IQ score than social class, mother’s IQ or  infant IQ o Early learning experiences affect child’s intellectual functioning o Home environment is the single most important predictor of scores on  IQ tests in children 3­8  Effects of early childhood education o Programs that involve/educate parents are beneficial  Effects of Poverty o Children raised in poverty score lower on IQ and are at greater risk for  school failure o Environmental enrichment enhances cognitive development of  economically disadvantaged children  Head­start­federally funded program for low income families o Designed to increase readiness for elementary school o Effective and leads to gains in school readiness and achievement tests  Television o U.S. children spend more time watching TV than they do in school o By age 3, children watch 2­3 hours per day o Children’s Television Act (1990)­requires networks to devote 3 hours  per week to educational television between 7am­10pm o Sesame Street (most successful) increased intellectual growth in poor  preschool children o Commercials are the worst part of television for children IV) Theory of Mind  Theory of mind­“common sense” understanding of how the mind works o Difference between real and mental events o Difference between how things appear and how they really are o Being able to infer perceptions, thoughts, feelings of others o Understanding mental states affect behavior  Research shows preschoolers can predict and explain human action and  emotion  Indicators o False beliefs­most children 4­5 cannot separate beliefs from those of  another person who has false knowledge of a situation o Origins of knowledge­children age 3 realize people gain knowledge  about a situation by looking at it o Appearance­reality distinction­ V) Memory  Ages 1­2 o Autobiographical memory o Episodic memory o Memories mostly facilitated by talking with others and are seldom  retained to adulthood  Age 3 o Present coherent, orderly accounts of familiar events o Scripts­abstract, generalized accounts of recurring events, lacking in  detail, not case specific  Form after 1 event and elaborate with repetition o Unusual events may be remembered in specific detail for years  Age 4 o Remember things from 18 months prior  Factors influencing memory o Interest level­children show better recognition and recall for preferred  toys o Retrieval cues/reminders­computer analogy: you must have a name for a file in order to locate it, the name is the retrieval cue o Young children depend on help for memory  Measures of memory o Verbal report­underestimate preschoolers’ memories o Using “props” to reenact an event to help recall  Memory strategies o Rehearsal­repetition (usually age 5) o Organization­assigning categories (usually ages 3­4) VI) Language Development  Preschoolers learn an average of 9 new words per day  Fast mapping­attaching a new word to a familiar concept  Whole object assumption­assuming a word refers to the whole object and not  its parts  Contrast assumption­children assume objects have only one label (also called  mutual exclusivity assumption) o New words refer to unrelated objects  Age 3­4 “grammar explosion” o Sentence structure expands to include missing words as seen in  telegraphic speech o Knowledge of rules for combining phrases/clauses into sentences o Over regularization­children acquire grammatical rules as the learn  language and apply the rules strictly with no exceptions o Asking questions­children’s first questions are telegraphic and  characterized by a rise in pitch  Consistent with general cognitive development o Age 3­ understanding of “who” and “where” o Age 4­ understanding of “when” “why” “which” “how” o Later on­add auxiliary verbs to indicate present/past/future tenses  Passive sentences o 2­3 year olds have trouble using them o Pragmatics­practical aspects of communication  Children show pragmatism when they adjust their speech to fit  the social situation  Language and cognition o Piaget believed cognitive development precedes language, arguing that children understand concepts then use language to describe them VII) Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognition  Inner speech­ultimate binding of language and thought; involved in planning,  self­regulation, and facilitates learning process o At first children speak thoughts o 3 year olds talk to regulate behavior o Gradually by 6­7 spoken words become internalized


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