Chapter 9 Class Notes
Chapter 9 Class Notes PSYC 208
Christopher Newport University
Popular in Child Development
Popular in Psychology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Marshall on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 208 at Christopher Newport University taught by Dr. Jarvis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Child Development in Psychology at Christopher Newport University.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 9: Early Childhood Cognitive Development; Piaget’s Preoperational Stage (Stage 2, Ages 27) I) Symbolic Thought Symbolic thoughtusing symbols to represent objects/relationships Most important type of symbolic thought is language Symbolic/pretend play o Around 1 year, children may pretend to be sleeping or eating o 1520 months, focus shifts from self to others (pretending to feed a doll) o 30 months, objects take on an active role (children pretend a doll feeds itself) o Imaginary friends 65% of preschool age children have imaginary friends Most common among first born or only children Children with imaginary friends tend to be less aggressive, more cooperative, more creative, have more real friends, have better concentration, and more advanced language development o Connected to better academic performance, creativity, and social skills o Violent pretend play leads to less empathy and more likely to be antisocial II) Egocentrism Preoperational children do not understand that other people may see the world differently than they do Think in onedimensional terms (see things from only their own perspective) “3 mountains test”experiment that shows how children at this stage relate information Causality o Precausalwhen preoperational children are asked about events they do not know the natural causes of, those events and are likely to have an egocentric explanation that is not based on science o Transductive reasoningchildren “reason” by relating two unrelated events o Animismchildren attribute life and intentions to inanimate objects o Artificialismchildren assume that environmental features are made by people Confusion of mental/physical events o At 24 years, children show confusion between symbols and things they represent o They do not realize that words are arbitrary and different words can refer to the same object Law of Conservationproperties of substances such as volume, mass, and number remain the same even if the shape/arrangement is changed o Centrationability to focus on 2 aspects of a situation at once o Preoperational children are not yet capable of focusing on 2 aspects of a situation at the same time III) Factors in Cognitive Development “HOME” environmentHome Observation for the Measuring of the Environment o Testing tool developed to evaluate the effects of a child’s home environment on cognitive development o Parent child interactions are directly observed in the home o Better predictor of later IQ score than social class, mother’s IQ or infant IQ o Early learning experiences affect child’s intellectual functioning o Home environment is the single most important predictor of scores on IQ tests in children 38 Effects of early childhood education o Programs that involve/educate parents are beneficial Effects of Poverty o Children raised in poverty score lower on IQ and are at greater risk for school failure o Environmental enrichment enhances cognitive development of economically disadvantaged children Headstartfederally funded program for low income families o Designed to increase readiness for elementary school o Effective and leads to gains in school readiness and achievement tests Television o U.S. children spend more time watching TV than they do in school o By age 3, children watch 23 hours per day o Children’s Television Act (1990)requires networks to devote 3 hours per week to educational television between 7am10pm o Sesame Street (most successful) increased intellectual growth in poor preschool children o Commercials are the worst part of television for children IV) Theory of Mind Theory of mind“common sense” understanding of how the mind works o Difference between real and mental events o Difference between how things appear and how they really are o Being able to infer perceptions, thoughts, feelings of others o Understanding mental states affect behavior Research shows preschoolers can predict and explain human action and emotion Indicators o False beliefsmost children 45 cannot separate beliefs from those of another person who has false knowledge of a situation o Origins of knowledgechildren age 3 realize people gain knowledge about a situation by looking at it o Appearancereality distinction V) Memory Ages 12 o Autobiographical memory o Episodic memory o Memories mostly facilitated by talking with others and are seldom retained to adulthood Age 3 o Present coherent, orderly accounts of familiar events o Scriptsabstract, generalized accounts of recurring events, lacking in detail, not case specific Form after 1 event and elaborate with repetition o Unusual events may be remembered in specific detail for years Age 4 o Remember things from 18 months prior Factors influencing memory o Interest levelchildren show better recognition and recall for preferred toys o Retrieval cues/reminderscomputer analogy: you must have a name for a file in order to locate it, the name is the retrieval cue o Young children depend on help for memory Measures of memory o Verbal reportunderestimate preschoolers’ memories o Using “props” to reenact an event to help recall Memory strategies o Rehearsalrepetition (usually age 5) o Organizationassigning categories (usually ages 34) VI) Language Development Preschoolers learn an average of 9 new words per day Fast mappingattaching a new word to a familiar concept Whole object assumptionassuming a word refers to the whole object and not its parts Contrast assumptionchildren assume objects have only one label (also called mutual exclusivity assumption) o New words refer to unrelated objects Age 34 “grammar explosion” o Sentence structure expands to include missing words as seen in telegraphic speech o Knowledge of rules for combining phrases/clauses into sentences o Over regularizationchildren acquire grammatical rules as the learn language and apply the rules strictly with no exceptions o Asking questionschildren’s first questions are telegraphic and characterized by a rise in pitch Consistent with general cognitive development o Age 3 understanding of “who” and “where” o Age 4 understanding of “when” “why” “which” “how” o Later onadd auxiliary verbs to indicate present/past/future tenses Passive sentences o 23 year olds have trouble using them o Pragmaticspractical aspects of communication Children show pragmatism when they adjust their speech to fit the social situation Language and cognition o Piaget believed cognitive development precedes language, arguing that children understand concepts then use language to describe them VII) Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognition Inner speechultimate binding of language and thought; involved in planning, selfregulation, and facilitates learning process o At first children speak thoughts o 3 year olds talk to regulate behavior o Gradually by 67 spoken words become internalized
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