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Anth 120 week 4 Evolution notes part 2

by: Katie Blackmer

Anth 120 week 4 Evolution notes part 2 ANTH 120 001

Marketplace > George Mason University > Anthropology > ANTH 120 001 > Anth 120 week 4 Evolution notes part 2
Katie Blackmer
GPA 3.71

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These notes cover week 4's evolution part 2 lecture.
Unearthng Past:Prehistory, Culture Evolution
Nawa Sugiyama
Class Notes
anth120, evolution, Anthrology
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Blackmer on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 120 001 at George Mason University taught by Nawa Sugiyama in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Unearthng Past:Prehistory, Culture Evolution in Anthropology at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Neandertals  Neandertals from Europe and Near East are well represented in the fossil record and at archaeological sites.  Neandertals overlap in time and space with anatomically modern humans.  Their interaction with and relation to modern humans is hotly debated.  Neandertals evolved from H. heidelbergensis in Europe while anatomically modern Homo sapiens evolved from H. heidelbergensis in Africa  Neandertals ~ 200,000 – 28,000 y.a. Anatomical traits  Neandertal Modern Human • Double-arched brow ridges • No Chin • Long and low vault • Occipital bun • Midfacial projection • Broad nasal passage • 1500cc • Very small to no brow ridges • Chin • High round vault • No occipital bun • Flat, small face • Small nasal passage Teeth  Retromolar gap  Worn anterior teeth  Taurodont molars Adaptation to living in cold climate  Robust body  Barrel-chested  Powerfully muscled  Shorter limbs Neanderthals Post Cranial Significance? • Limb proportions correlated with mean annual temperatures (Inuits vs Nuer) • Allens’ rule - Organisms in cold climates tend to have shorter extremities • Bergmann’s rule – Endotherms tend to have bulkier bodies in cold temperature climates Art  Caves in southeast Spain  Decorated shells Red pigment  Dated to 50,000 y.a. (10,000 years before arrival of modern humans) Tools  Neandertals, who lived in the cultural period known as the Middle Paleolithic, are almost always associated with the Mousterian industry In the early part of the last glacial period, Mousterian culture extended across Europe and North Africa into the former Soviet Union, Israel, Iran, and as far east as Uzbekistan and perhaps even China.  Numerous flake tools; few, however, apparently for highly specialized functions; use of bone, antler, or ivory very rare; relatively few tools with more than one or two parts Where do Neanderthals Ultimately Fit?  Original Interpretation: Ancient DNA analysis of Neanderthal bone fragment suggests that they are a distinct lineage that went extinct. Reason? Unknown. Fate of Neanderthals seem to support ‘Out of Africa’; evidence for replacement Contemporary modern Homo sapiens and Neanderthals coexisted but didn’t seem to interbreed Eastern European Neanderthals problematic; some mosaic features Derived features of anatomically modern humans  Postcrania o Less robust o Longer limbs o Thinner bone The emergence and spread of anatomically modern humans  AMH initially evolved from African H. heidelbergensis (Archaic H. sapiens) ~200 kya. By 27 kya,  modern humans are the only remaining hominins (except H. floresiensis) Replacement (Out of Africa)  Model African origin and outward migration by modern humans Flow of people into areas where H. erectus and descendants lived and replacement of indigenous populations Gene flow between indigenous peoples and modern humans was rare Multiregional Continuity Model  Diverse origins for modern humans arose from extensive gene flow. Alleles underlying modern phenotype spread throughout multiple regions as people met, mated, and successfully reproduced. A single evolving lineage with slightly different anatomical trends in different regions . Anatomically modern humans:  fossil evidence in Africa: 190 kya (Omo & Herto)  Middle east: 115 kya (Skhul & Qafzeh)  East Asia : 60 kya (Liujiang)  Australia : 40 kya (Lake Mungo)  Europe: 40 kya  Moved into New World ~20 kya Fossil evidence  By 27 kya, all human fossils look anatomically modern throughout the Old World. Suggests that modern humans replaced existing populations without interbreeding The African Archaeological Record  Middle Stone Age  Engraved ostrich egg shells  Engraved red ocher fragments


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