BSC 1005(Biology) for non majors. All the chapters for Living with Dinosaurs
BSC 1005(Biology) for non majors. All the chapters for Living with Dinosaurs BSC 1005 - 0001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Webb on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1005 - 0001 at Florida State University taught by George Bates, Gregory Erickson, Hengli Tang, Steven Lenhert, Carolyn Schultz in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see General Biology for non-majors in Science at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Unit 2: Dinosaurs BSC1005 Highlighted in red: professor specifically said it would be on the test Chapter 1 introduction to “fearfully great reptiles” and the science of dinosaur paleontology: Paleontologist= someone who studies ancient organisms Palentology is particularly important with regard to scientific literacy, since for many children dinosaurs are their first exposure to scientific concepts Paleobiology= the study of ancient life Early records from china (and later in medieval Europe) purporting the existence of dragons were likely based on dinosaur remains. “scrotum humanum”= was first scientific name given to dinosaur remains. At the time it was thought to be from a humans private parts. We now know that it is the end of the thigh bone from a meat eating dinosaur and it is hollow Thomas Jefferson was a fossil fanatic. He wrote a number of scientific papers on fossils and is known to have had fossil mammal bones strewn about the unfinished east room of the white house. Some consider him a “founding father” of paleontology This paradigm began to change in 1770 when a giant-foot long sea monster (mosasaurus- not a dinosaur), but a seagoing relative of todays monitor lizards The great French anatomist jean leopold Nicholas Fredrick cuvier (“baron George Cuvier) who has studies giant sloths fossils from south America examined the specimen and thought it was crazy that animals like these lived today. Since cuvier was very influential person people actually thought that it could be possible that these animals went extinct Reverend William buckland (many of the first paleontologist were clergymen) is credited with describing the first scientifically valid dinosaur Megalosaurus= big reptile Suprinsgly, buckland’s giant meet-eater drew little excitement from the public Gideon mantel found the teeth and bones of an animal he named igunodon= iguana tooth. This was the first described herbivores dinosaur. In 1842, the great British comparative anatomist Sir Richard Owen tried to categorize giant fossil animals of Europe as scaled up members of living reptile groups. The name he gave to these organisms was dinosaurian = fearfully great reptiles. He characterized them as: giant, possessing upright stances, non aquatic, and having three or more sacral vertebrae (backbones fused in the hip region Reptiles are scaley-skinned, terrestrialized =living on land animals, that lay hard-shelled eggs we know that among reptiles, dinosaurs (and birds) are archosaurian reptiles, which includes the crocodilians and pterosaurs = (extinct flying reptiles) and dinosauromorphs = (extinct dinosaur- like reptiles) archosaurans (crocodiles, pterousaurs, dinosaurs(including birds), and the other archosaurians, such as the “dinosauromorohs” are distinguished by the having teeth in sockets that are replaced throughout life (this is one way we know that crocodilians, such as alligators, are closely related to dinosaurs) dinosauromorphs are the closest relatives to dinosaurs because they have an erect posture dinosaurs are unique from all other reptiles including the “dinosauromorphs” in having these three key features: three or more sacral vertebra= fused backbones), hands with three main fingers, and perforate acetabulae (the hole where the thighbone attached goes all the way through the hip fossil feud between Othniel Charles marsh and Edward drinker cope when marsh pointed out that cope had put the head of a plesiosaur (a long necked sea monster) on its tail louis dollo- first paleobiologist (person interested interested in the lives of dinosaurs) deinonychus= “terrible claw” a velocripator like those in Jurassic park. It was small, large-brained, and agile with a streamlined body and a tendon stiffed tail that provided teeter toter like counterbalancing. Robert bakker took the deinonychus and ran with it. The u.s government, for example has looked at ways to avert disaster should a large asteroid endanger the earths ecosystems again. Two major groupings of dinosaurs are: ornithischians (bird hips) with pelvic bones shaped like those of bird, example is the iguanodon, and saurischians with pelves like lizards = lizard hips, megalosaurus Chapter 2: 238 million years ago till 65.5 million years during a time known as the Mesozoic area was referred to as the age of dinosaurs. 3 major periods called: o Triassic period: named for three rock layers in Germany. the oldest dinosaurs show up midway through this period o Jurassic period: named from a limestone layer in the “Jura” mountains of Switzerland. This was th time of the very large dinosaurs. o Cretaceous period: named for chalk layers in eastern Europe. The dinosaurs (excluding birds) were extinct 65.54 million years ago at the end of this period The best isotope for dating rocks from the age of dinosaurs is uranium 235=which breaks down into lead 207 Half life= the amount of time it takes for half of the original material to break down Climate in the age of the dinosaurs: it was arid in equatorial regions and much like florida in middle latitudes. Closer to the poles it was cool, wet, and rainy Plate tectonics: in the Triassic period all were adjoined into one super continent known as Pangea and then when the continents moved apart it was called plate tectonics. The continental movements are drive by volcanic seafloor spreading in the oceans It was warmer in the age of dinosaurs so there were no ice caps at the poles. Consequently there were more free water in the oceans than there is today and a greater portion of the continents were covered by water Gymnosperms dominated the dryer ecosystem and there was less ground cover than there is today. Angiosperms= flowering plants The world became more vegetated with ground cover all over and closed forest of dedicudius trees became abundant Nearly all dinosaurs were terrestrial animals The earliest crocodiles during the age of dinosaurs were small, agile, terrestrial predators Denosuchus= terror crocodile Our work on growth lines in the bony armor of these animals shows that they became giant not by growing fast, as we might have expected, but by growing at the same rates as living alligators The first turtles from the Triassic period were fully terrestrial and even had teeth Ichthyosaurs: reptiles that looked and swam like dolphins Plesiosaurus- the supposed loch ness monster Pterosaurs: bat like The largest pterosaurs were a quetzalcoatalus Mammals appeared about the same time as the dinosaurs in the late Triassic period. They were initially rat or weasel like, and mouse to opossum sized, and for the most part remained so throughout the entire 173 million year tenture of the dinosaurs Fossils are evidence of ancient life Trace fossils: are not remains of animals themselves but traces such as tracks, eggs, skin impressions, bite marks, and even fossilized feces=coprollites. Trace fossils are the primary means by which paleontologist learn about dinosaur biology To become fossilized, remains of the animal must be buried fairly rapid under sediments such as those from rivers (most common), windblown sand (fairly common), or volcanic ash(rarely) Rocks are formed from sediments rocks and most commonly preserve dinosaur skeletons. Sedimentary or ignenous rocks that have been deformed by the pressures of the earth are called metamorphic rocks Usually fossil dinosaur bones are composed of the original calcium phosphates =the hard mineral in bones Animals only very rarely become fossilized. A case in point is that most dinosaurs are known only from single. Partially complete specimens Most dinosaur remains are found eroding out of the earth Badlands= bad places to grow crops Florida does not have exposed terrestrial Mesozoic sediments Forces for the much larger Australian saltwater crocodile exceeded 3,700 lbs
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