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Geog 101, Week 4

by: Francesca Notetaker

Geog 101, Week 4 101

Francesca Notetaker
California State University Northridge
GPA 4.0

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Notes from 09/30
Geog 101
Mia Dittmer
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Francesca Notetaker on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at California State University Northridge taught by Mia Dittmer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Geog 101 in Geography at California State University Northridge.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
Week 4 – 09/30 (starting from section V, letter D, 4 effects of global warming) 4.Melting of the ice in the northern polar region is going to weaken the gulf stream. This is going to cause western and northern Europe to become cooler as result of global warming 5.Agricultural production areas and associated crop yields • The mild climate makes cows happy, especially in the winter that the weather is mellow. • We have a lot of hot days and it's putting heat stress on dairy cows. • the problem is that the cows need to be in an area where agriculture is possible (Northern cali?) • we're running out of water, and they need to grow feed for the cows (importing feed is too expensive) • the agricultural industry would need to move out of state 6.Changes in precipitation patterns • some people will get more/less rain • conversion from snow to rain in the Sierra Nevada (too warm in the winter months) 7.Possibly we would get stronger hurricanes (not proven yet) • hurricanes love warm weather, water temperature must be minimum 80 degrees • upper level winds have to cooperate to strengthen the hurricane • hurricanes have high levels of activity for about 20/30years then you get a low period of activity for 20/30 years and then you go back to the period of high activity 8.Tropical diseases in higher latitudes (the winters are mild) the mosquitos that carry diseases survive the winters • mosquito species in California carry Dengue and Yellow fever 9.Increase in acidity in the ocean • the oceans are absorbing carbon dioxide and the combination of carbon dioxide and water gives you carbonic acid • decrease of plankton and snails (pteropods: very small snails and swimmers) - they represent the base of the food chain • less snails less food in the ocean, fewer species • decrease in thickness/strength of shell creatures and loss of corals (25%of all species in the ocean use coral reef) less marine lives overall - impoverished zones • the poles are getting effects of the global warming because cold water absorbs carbon dioxide faster than warm water so polar regions are showing the effects of global warming • as time progresses is going to be more acidic Result: there are some lives in the ocean the are fine with acidic water, species that are older and primitive have seen everything (algae, bacteria and jelly fish) they are okay with it because they have been in it and survived. These species are proliferating. 10.We are seeing a shift in species migration pattern and changes in the timing of seasonal onset • winters are setting in later and overall winter is less severe with exceptions (Northern Europe) • spring is beginning earlier - summer time is expanding • migration patterns are changing as well. Birds species arriving in areas that have never documented before. New species observed in areas. • bird nesting time is shifting • polar bears are the first species to be listed as climate threatened under the endangered species. With the ice loss they are not able to hunt. 11.Permafrost begins to melt (permanently frozen soil) exists in higher latitude near the arctic (n. canada, siberia) • soil has organic stuff in it and the decomposition of organic material releases methane • in the case of permanent frost a vast amount of methane has been trapped inside the frozen soil • when you melt permanent frost you release large quantities of methane Problem: no idea of how much methane is trapped in the frost. Methane is 20 times more effecting at trapping heat than carbon dioxide. We know that methane level are increasing in the atmosphere. 12.Major increase in the risk of wildfire 13.With warmer ocean waters the oceans are going to hold less oxygen. Low oxygen levels lead to Hypoxic zones. These zones are expanding today. • Significantly decreased fish • expanding into commercial fishing zones • can lead to mass extinction Air temperature I. The atmosphere: vertical structure A. Designation by temperature 1. Troposphere. where we live. Contains 75% of the total mass of the atmosphere. Very densely populated with gases. It happens to have almost all of the water vapor in the atmosphere. It has all of the clouds. Contains almost all of aerosols. All water disturbances happen here, hurricanes, thunderstorms. Temperatures decrease with increasing altitude. (6.5 degree celsius/1000m ). 2.Stratosphere. Stratosphere temperatures will increase with increasing altitude. Ozone is found in the Stratosphere layer. Ozone absorbs incoming ultraviolet radiation, it traps heat. Problem: ozone is being destroyed. Things that destroy ozone: 1. Clorine (CFC - Chloroflourocarbon) It doesn't exist in nature so we made it. As a compound is completely neutral. when the compound broke apart and the chlorine splits up that's when we have issues. We use CFC in solvents, propellants, refrigerants. 2.Nitrous Oxides (fossil fuel). Airplanes are in the stratosphere with no pollution controls. 3.Volcanic dust Most of the destruction of ozone in the stratosphere takes place over antarctica (south polar region). Two main reasons: i. formation of polar vortex. Is the formation of exceptionally strong winds. Those strong winds are critical to atmospherically isolating antarctica from the rest of the atmosphere. The pollutants get pulled over Antarctica and they are stuck there. ii. Cold temperatures. They are responsible for unlocking the CFC compound. Maximum depletion of ozone in Antarctica occurs in early October (early Spring). Less ozone in the air (hole of the ozone). Max depletion lasts for 2-3 weeks so the hole in the ozone is not permanent. Once the sun comes back it starts heating things up and it kills the polar vortex. The polar vortex disappears. Now the ozone air of antarctica spread all over - we have diluted world wide concentration of ozone. This happens every single year. Effects of decreasing ozone: • For every 1% decrease in ozone there is a 2% increase in UV getting through the ground. • increasing skin cancer • damaged eye tissue • cataract: degeneration of eye sight • it decreases crop yield • the oceans don't handle the UV radiation well, they are transparent and. unfortunately a lot of plants close to the surface get exposure from the UV. we've seen a decrease in marine life. Ozone can regenerate itself. We are destroying at a rate faster than it can recover. Once we stop destroying it can regenerate.


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