Psychology 101; Lecture notes prolouge and chapter one
Psychology 101; Lecture notes prolouge and chapter one PSY 101 Jonathon Weaver- Introduction to Psychology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hunter Johnson on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 Jonathon Weaver- Introduction to Psychology at Michigan State University taught by David Hambrick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE’S Guide: New lecture, Vocab, People. Lecture one: Intro to Psychology: 9/6 What is Psychology? The science of behavior and mental processes. Study: Mental disorders and all human behavior. Change Blindness: Something changes and we didn’t notice. Our Brains expect continuity. Behavior: Action of organism we can observe and record. -Delayed Gratification improves as we get older. Mental Processes: Internal, subjective experiences- including sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts and feelings. We infer unobservable mental states such as feelings from observable behaviors. In this sense behavior is a “window” to the mind. Science: Approach to gaining understanding of the natural world through systematic observation. Psychology Roots: “Psychology has a long past but a short history.” Greek Philosopher Aristotle suggested -Hermann knowledge grows from experience. Wilhelm Wundt 1879 is the year Wilhelm Wundt founded 1 st laboratory devoted to psychological research. “Founder of psychology.” – Wilhelm Wundt Wilhelm Wundt- Principles of Psychological Psychology Edward Titchener Introduced Structuralism Aimed to identify basic elements of the mind in the same way chemist founded the periodic table. William James – founder of American Psychology Thought about minds functions Argued that the function of consciousness is that it enables us to consider our past and to adjust our present circumstances accordingly. Principles of Psychology - BOOK Francis Galton Differences in psychological traits Invented tools and statistical techniques to study them. Contemporary Psychology (Three Levels): Biological Level - Natural Selection of adaptive traits - Genetic predispositions responding to environment - Brain mechanisms - Hormonal influences Psychological Level - Learned fears and other learned expectations - Emotional responses - Cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations Social-Cultural Influences - Presence of others - Cultural, societal, and family expectations - Peer and other group influences - Compelling models (Ex: Media) Lecture Two: Introduction to Psychology 9/8 Biological Psychologist: Study link between brain and behavior. Ex: What brain region regulates sexual behavior? Hypothalamus. Developmental Psychologist: Study how behavior changes from womb to tomb. Ex: Why do certain types of memory decline with age? Cognitive Psychologist: Study how people perceive the world and how they form new memories, think and solve problems. Social Psychologist: Study how we interact with each other- how we view and affect one another in social interactions. Some Psychologist conduct basic research which aim is to simply increase knowledge of some phenomenon- to build theories. Applied Research: Tackles practical problems- how we select individuals who are likely to succeed in particular job. Consoling Psychologist: Help people cope with challenges including academic, vocational and marital. Clinical Psychologist: Asses and treat mental, emotional behavioral disorders. Human Factor Psychologist: Principle of perception and cognition to design devices and interfaces that people interact with. Industrial Psychologist: Study relationships between people and working environments to increase productivity and improve personal selection and promote jobs. 1. What is Psychology? Scientific study of behavior and mental processes. 2. What types of research? Basic and applied (Tackle real world) 3. When and how psychological science began? William Wundt discovered psychological science in 1879 4. What is psychology level of analysis? Social, cultural, biological and psychological. 5. What main subfields? Clinical, developmental and consoling. Chapter One: Thinking critically with psychology. Chapter 1: Vocab Intuition: Effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning. Hindsight Bias: Tendency to believe after learning an outcome, that one should have foreseen. Critical thinking: Thinking that doesn’t blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Instead: examines assumptions, appraises source, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions. Theory: Explanation using set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events. Hypothesis: Testable prediction (Implied by theory) Operational Definition: Carefully worded statement of exact procedures (operations) used in research study. Replication: Repeating essence of a research study. Usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. Naturalistic Observation: Descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations (No manipulation or control) Survey: Descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group. Population: All those in a group being studied from which samples may be drawn. Random Sample: Sample that fairly represents a population because each member has equal chance of inclusion, Correlation: Measure of extent to which two factors vary together and thus how well either factor predicts the other. Correlation Coeffient: Statistical index of relationship between two things. (From -1.00 to +1.00) Scatter Plot: Graphed cluster of dots that represents values of two variables. Slope of points suggest the direction of relation and amount of scatter suggests strength of correlation (Little scatter= high correlation) Regression toward mean: Tendency for extreme or unusual scores of events to fall back (regress) toward the average. Experiment: Research method in which investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe effect on some behavior or mental process. Experimental Group: Group that is exposed to the treatment. Control Group: Group that is not exposed to the treatment. Random assignment: Assigning participants too experimental and control group by chance. (Minimizing pre-existing differences between different groups) Double Blind Procedure: Experimental procedure where both the participant and the research staff are blind to the treatment or placebo. Placebo: “I shall please” effects experimental results caused by expectations alone. Independent Variable: Factor that’s being manipulated- variable whose effects are being studied. Confunding Variable: Factor other than the independent variable that might produce effect. Dependent Variable: Outcome that is measured- variable that may change if the independent variable is manipulated. Informed Consent: Giving potential participants enough info about a study to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate. Debriefing: Post experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions to its participants. Mode: Most frequently occurring scores in distribution. Mean: Average obtained by adding the scores and then diving by number of scores. Median: Middle score in a distribution, half the scores above and half the scores are below. Range: Differences between the highest-lowest scores in distribution. Normal Curve: Bell-shaped curve that described the distribution of many types of data. Statistical Significance: Statistical Statements of how likely it is that an obtained result occurs by chance. Why do we need psychology? (How people react, mental disorders, how environment affects us and how we effect the environment.) Psychology makes the world a better place. Hindsight Bias: (20/20) Idea common sense after the fact more easily than before fact. Scientific Method (How psychologist ask and answer questions) Theory: Explanation using integrated set of principles that organizes observations. Hypothesis: Testable prediction implied by a theory. Theory – leads to -Hypothesis - leads to - Research. Everyday Observation: Observing world around you and asking questions about why people think and behave as they do. Personal Experience: Psychologist want to understand their own tendencies, limitations and foibles (weakness). Replication: Seeing whether basic finding can be observed again with different participants and under different circumstances. Lecture Three: Continuing Chapter One 9/13 Operational Definition: Specific statement of procedures used to define research variables. Allows other to replicate the original observation. Ex: Studying the intelligence of children figuring out a puzzle. Research Design: Three major types of designs psychologist use are Descriptive, Correlational and Experimental. Setting: Lab and field Descriptive Methods: Case Study: In depth investigation of a single (Or very few) subjects. Ex: (30-year-old case-study) Irene Pepperberg concluded that African grey parrot Alex could nape and categorize objects up and comprehend numbers up to six. Ex: Jean Piaget developed influential theory of cognitive development. The Survey: An investigation of many cases in less depth by asking people to report opinions and behavior. Naturalistic Observation: Recording behavior in its natural environment and describing it in detail. Ex: Jane Goodall used naturalistic observations to study chimpanzees. Experimental Methods: Purpose: Explore the cause and effect by manipulating one or more factors while holding another factor constant. Variable: Anything that can fluctuate Ex: Rainy or Sunny, Warm or cold, Male or Female. Independent Variable: Whose effect is being studied. Ex: Online Vs. Classroom Dependent Variable: Change in response to manipulation of the independent variable. Ex: Test Scores Random Assignment: Assigning participants too experimental and control groups by chance. (Minimizing pre-existing between the groups that could affect the dependent variable.) Not Conducting an Experiment 1. You cannot random assign a child to be male or female 2. Unethical; Putting someone in harm’s way Ex: Exposing someone to polluted or non-polluted air for the purpose of seeing rather it has a negative effect. Correlational Methods: Purpose: Observing naturally occurring relationships between variable. Statistical index: (-1 to 1) of relationship between two variables. Scatterplot: Graphed cluster of dots (Each of the dots represent a person). Lecture Four 9/15 Continuing Chapter One Correlation: “Correlation does not imply causation” 1. Directionality Problem (Which way does the arrow of correlation go.) 2. Third Variable Problem (Spurious= False) Ex. Spurious: Positive Correlation between storks and babies during the winter. The Third variable would be: It’s cold so people go inside. Descriptive: Observe and record behavior. Correlation: To detect naturally occurring relationships to assess how well one variable predicts another. Experimental: Explore cause and effect. Research Ethics Is it Ethical to experiment on people? Stanly Milgram - American Social Psychologist - Interested why people are hurtful to each other. - Interested in obedience to authority. The Milgram Experiment Teacher vs. Learner. Every time the learner (actor) would get an answer wrong the teacher (non- actor) would shock the learner. 67 percent of the teachers (2/3) went to the highest shock on the learner. Research Ethics 1.)Obtain Conformed Consent 2.)Protect them from harm 3.)Maintain Confidentiality 4.)Debrief
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