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Women and Gender Studies - Class Notes Week 1

by: Aenea Mead

Women and Gender Studies - Class Notes Week 1 WGS 201

Aenea Mead
Cal Poly
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About this Document

This is a summary of everything we talked about in class from the four waves of feminism, to the French vs the Haudenosaunee.
Introduction to Women's and Gender Studies in the United States
Nicole Stegner
Class Notes
Waves-of-Feminism, History-of-Feminism, French-and-Haudenosaunee




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aenea Mead on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to WGS 201 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Nicole Stegner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Women's and Gender Studies in the United States in WGS - Women & Gender Studies at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
VOCABULARY Misogyny​ - woman hating Misandry​ - man hating Postfeminist​ - person who believes equality has been reached ● after each wave of feminism postfeminism becomes more prominent Slacktivism​ - the negative side of the move toward online social movements Brief Overview of Women’s Rights Overtime Classical and Medieval World: - Women lack property rights (​femme covert / coverture​ states that a woman is legally covered by her husband) - Women lack rights over their bodies and children - Women have no rights of citizenship (ie. voting rights) - Women are the property first of their fathers, then of their husbands Renaissance: - Status of widow​ - widowed women gain property rights when their husbands die, however there is an immense pressure to remarry almost immediately - Lots of biblical, classical or politically motivated misogynist texts Mary Tudor “bloody Mary” - Queen of England Elizabeth I “Virgin Queen” - Queen of England Mary Stuart “Queen of Scots” - Queen of Scotland The three queens above led to the first meaningful debate about gender. People began to question the household, since the household was supposed to be a microcosm of the kingdom. Many men (and women) didn’t believe that women were able to rule a household or a kingdom. The Enlightenment: - Mary Wollstonecraft published the first major feminist work 1st Wave of Feminism in the United States - Feminist movement emerges from abolitionist movement (women were able to find common ground and instead of fighting for two issues separately, everyone came together to fight for them all at once) - Seneca Falls Convention (1848) - held by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton - Launched feminist movement on a national level - How the convention was brought about: Mott and Stanton had traveled all the way to London to attend an antislavery convention only to be told at the door that because they were women they were not allowed to speak during the convention - In 1878 Susan B Anthony introduced the nineteenth amendment, giving women the right to vote, to Congress - The amendment was not ratified until 1920 - The deciding vote was cast by Harry Burn - Summary: The first wave of feminism in the United States was successful in making feminism known on a national level and in giving women the right to vote, however, mostly due the the fact that Mott, Stanton and Anthony were all upper class white women, it failed to address the needs of the middle and lower social classes. 2nd Wave of Feminism in the United States: - During WWII, while the men were off fighting, the women were the ones needed to step up and take on their husbands roles. This resulted in unprecedented rights and freedoms for women. When the men came home and expected everything to go back to the way it was, the women, who had enjoyed their independence and autonomy, were willing to fight against the change. - Title IX (1972): prevented gender discrimination in education - Roe vs Wade (1973): supreme court decision giving women the right to an abortion - “The personal is political” -- Major idea during this second wave which basically means that everything a person does in their personal life is fair game to be used for or against them in politics. It meant that in order for women to make any headway with gender rights and equality, they needed to have a spotless personal record. - Summary: The second wave of feminism successfully made gains regarding equality in education, the workplace and reproductive rights. This fight was fueled by both middle and upper class women. 3rd Wave of Feminism in the United States (1990’s): - Was a reaction to the exclusionism of the second wave - There was a coalition building across identities (ie. people of race, sex, class, sexuality, ability, etc decided to fight for all rights together rather than individual rights separately) - Notion of men and masculinities began to be recognized and studied - Male Studies (1990) - Anti men and masculinity studies - Misogynist fringe group focused on the needs of white men - Saw men as an oppressed minority (women were main oppressors) - Academic aspect: Foundation for Male Studies - Social movement: Men’s Rights Advocates - Summary: The third wave of feminism brought many groups together to fight for a larger array of equality issues. In addition to fighting for women’s rights, the academic study of both genders rights and roles was introduced to America. The effort also faced new types of opposition. Fourth Wave of Feminism? - Not a consensus on whether it exists yet - Related to how social media and other online platforms have changed the face of feminism - Slacktivism Interactions Between the French and the Haudenosaunee Iroquois (French name), League of Five Nations (English name), ​Haudenosaunee confederacy (self-given name - means people of the Longhouse): - Included the tribes: Hiawatha, Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas - Occupied a huge amount of land stretching from Tennessee to the Great Lake and across some of South Eastern Canada. - Ruled by Clan Mothers - Women had high status in society and were well respected because they birthed warriors - People needed their clan mothers approval before they could go the war - Matrilineal: descent determined by mother's side (as opposed to our patrilineal culture) - Flexibility of kinship and cultural identity - they cared more about loyalty than birth - For Example: there was one woman who was born into a white family, but eventually became clan mother - Might adopt people they captured to replace members of their family that they had lost Early goals of the French:​ When the French first came over to America they did not have nearly enough people for the amount of land they wanted to cultivate. The French government therefore decided that it would be a good idea to have as many mixed (Haudenosaunee and French) families as possible, but raise the children as French. Eventually they hoped to adopt all Haudenosaunee into their culture. Later strategy of the French:​ Eventually the French government decided this strategy was not working at all (because more French were becoming Haudenosaunee than the other way around), so instead they decided to restrict who could visit the Natives. They did this by handing out Certificats des Bonnes Moeurs​, which were required to travel, to those they deemed loyal enough. The new strategy to populate America with the French included: 1) Sent “Daughters of the King” (lower class French women living in France) to America with a dowry so they would marriage and have kids 2) Gave the higher positions to men with the biggest families


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