Chapter 7 Notes
Chapter 7 Notes PY 372
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Jones on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 372 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William Peter Hart in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 7 Notes Persuasion Yale Approach to attitude change(persuasion) ˗ Basically WHO says WHAT to WHOM ˗ Who: speaker effects ˗ What: message effect ˗ Whom: audience affect Speaker Effects What makes a speaker persuasive ˗ Credibility ˗ Likeability Credibility ˗ Perceived expertise ˗ Experts are believed more than non-experts ˗ Trustworthiness ˗ Lack vested interest in the issue ˗ The speaker has nothing to gain by persuading you about something ˗ They also have no hidden agenda ˗ Speaking quickly and without hesitation ˗ Speaks fluently; doesn’t say “uh” or “um” when speaking ˗ Ex: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EZHnQb6CV3A ˗ Good commercial because ˗ Credibility—as someone who uses the product, she is obviously an expert ˗ Trustworthiness—She just wants to talk about the benefits of the product and doesn’t really gain anything from it, as opposed to if the creator were to try to persuade you to buy it Likeability ˗ Physical appeal (attractiveness) ˗ Similarity and relatability ˗ Ex: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CXh5h9DBExM&index=33&list=PL2B73 A382291A18C5 If people pay attention to the source (and the credibility of that source), why do people ever believe what they read in tabloids (a non-credible source)? ˗ People remember what they heard and sometimes don’t remember the source ˗ Sleeper effect: delayed impact of a message that occurs when we remember the message but forget who said it (the source) ˗ Major exception to speaker effect ˗ People forget what they remember reading came from a non-credible source Message Effect Two-sided appeal: presenting both sides of an argument ˗ Can lead to more persuasion when ˗ The audience is or will become aware of both sides ˗ The audience disagrees with you ˗ Can backfire when the audience is already on your side ˗ Use of a two-sided appeal can lead to confusion or cause the audience to consider the opposition ˗ One-sided appeal would be more ideal for persuasion Primacy and Recency Effects ˗ Primacy effect: Information presented in the beginning is most persuasive ˗ More important when both arguments/messages are presented together or back to back ˗ Recency effect: Information presented at the end is most persuasive ˗ More important when there’s a delay or break between the arguments/messages ˗ Ex: Imagine a magazine decided to publish your essay on a debated topic along with the essay of one of your adversaries ˗ The editors ask whether you want your essay first or second. Assuming you want to convince the readers of the position, what do you say? ˗ It depends on when the essays would be presented ˗ If they are in the same issue, right after each other (primacy effect) ˗ Or if they are in different issues, a month apart (recency effect) Fear Appeals: messages that rely on rear to persuade people ˗ Ex: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GMP7pkmvgP4- Australian Anti- Smoking Ad (pretty graphic/gross, wouldn’t recommend watching if you can’t handle that kind of stuff) ˗ When fear appeals are successful at promoting change ˗ Use a small amount of fear ˗ too much can cause people to tune out the message ˗ use a fear appeal + a solution that leads to change ˗ at the end of the Australian anti-smoking ad, it gives a website people can go to to help them quit smoking Audience Effects the mood of the audience when receiving a message can influence persuasion ˗ A positive mood may lead to greater persuasion ˗ People often misattribute their mood to something salient in their environment ˗ A person in a good mood will misattribute their mood to the idea being expressed or the product being sold ˗ Ex: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PNqo1sWfUoA- Fanta Commercial ˗ A fun commercial that puts people in good mood, so it persuades people to buy Fanta because they feel good about it Getting people to do certain movements can lead greater persuasion ˗ Getting people to do motions that represent affirmation (shaking their up and down for example) can persuade people to agree with a message ˗ Wells and Petty study Individual disposition ˗ Need for closure: people high in this need dislike change are hard to persuade or change Personality of the audience ˗ Some people are just more agreeable, and thus are easier to persuade Modern Approaches to Persuasion Focus on how a person thinks about a persuasive message and what are their exact reaction to the message Concentrate on the mind of the recipient ˗ People vary in the extent to which they think about what they are hearing ˗ Some people like to deeply analyze messages, while others do not ˗ People thus have different reactions to the same messages Elaboration Likelihood Model ˗ Petty and Cacioppo (1986) ˗ Two possible processing routes that can cause persuasion: ˗ Central route processing: Effortful processing; effect of argument quality ˗ Peripheral route processing: Effortless processing; “peripheral” cues (those not pertinent to the argument; e.g., expertise) ˗ Central Processing ˗ Must have motivation to use—issue is considered important ˗ Must have ability to process—knowledgeable and not distracted ˗ Peripheral Processing ˗ Not motivated—issue isn’t important ˗ Ability—not knowledgeable and distracted ˗ If you want to persuade people, which route is best? ˗ It depends: ˗ If you want a long-lasting attitude change, then use central processing ˗ Use peripheral cues if the argument is weak ˗ Use strong messages when the audience is analytical (people who like to think) ˗ Use peripheral cues when your audience is uninvolved, unmotivated, or not analytical Resisting Persuasion Be forewarned that being will try to persuade you ˗ This way you’ll be ready and prepared Be knowledgeable on the topic so you can argue against points made by the persuader Make a public commitment to your position Have an ally in your position ˗ People sometimes believe that they’re only one with a certain view, having an ally makes it easier to resist persuasion Don’t live in a bubble ˗ Attitude inoculation: exposing people to weak attacks to their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have counterarguments available ˗ Understand that there are views and attitudes different from your own
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