New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Part 1 - International Development

by: Devyn J

Part 1 - International Development Fem 30

Devyn J

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover materials from week 1 through week 4
Women, Development and Globalization
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Women, Development and Globalization

Popular in Feminist Studies

This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Devyn J on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Fem 30 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Figueroa in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Women, Development and Globalization in Feminist Studies at University of California Santa Barbara.

Similar to Fem 30 at UCSB

Popular in Feminist Studies


Reviews for Part 1 - International Development


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/02/16
Feminist Studies 30 – Women and Development WEEK 1 DAY 2 Introduction: Students will understand the limitations of international development from a feminist perspective  What is development? o Concept (idea) o Policy (course of action)  What did international development entail> o Marshall Plan  Why did development become international policy? o Political turmoil  Shirin M Rai argues that development is a concept  President Truman’s Speech (1944) o Need to share American progress with the world o Describe development as a need to share:  Scientific advances  Industrial progress  Technical knowledge o Described underdeveloped areas:  Misery  Inadequate food  Disease  Primitive economic life  Poverty o The speech was significant because it defined the concept of development o Framework for international policy  Set the policies  Identified the places o Development became a policy seeking to control the manner in which countries develop their economies  Planned international development o Why was the USA concerned with international development? o The Second World War devastated Europe  Infrastructure  Economy o Reconstruction would then need international involvement o The devastation caused many social problems  Food shortages  Unemployment  Poverty  Riots o The USA organized the Bretton Woods Conference: New Hampshire – 1944 o 44 nations sent delegations  England and US led efforts  France  Soviet Union refused to attend o Agreed to reconstruct Europe and Japan by creating the institutional banking framework o Bretton Woods Conference engendered the international banking institutions  International Monetary Bank  IBR/World Bank (International Bank of Reconstruction) o International Banking had a purpose:  Encouraged  World trade  Open markets  Movement of capital  Planned development  Discouraged  Trade blocks  National protection o Import substitution industrialization o Reconstruction was not possible without international aid  Secretary of state George Marshall o Marshall Plan present to the president  Economic aid  Food aid  Loans  Grants  Exported manufacturing goods  Technology  Machinery  Vehicles  Equipment  Technical assistance  Economists  Mathematicians  Engineers  Exchange programs o European advisors came to the USA  Studied factories, agriculture and manufacturing plants o Thus the USA played an extremely important role in international development:  Led the reconstruction  Created the infrastructure  Developed the model  Invested billions of dollars o There were also political events that worried national leaders in the US  Post-colonial liberation movements  India (1947)  Algeria (1954-1962)  Ethiopia  Belize  Revolutionary movements in the “underdeveloped world”  Chinese Revolution (1949)  Cuban Revolution (1959) o Given the international political climate after WW2, the US and other nations treated international development as a question of security o Cold War period divided the international community into “Three Worlds”  Western nations – first world  Soviet bloc – second world  Non-aligned countries – third world o The third world became a geopolitical area characterized by extreme:  Poverty  Misery  Undeveloped backwardness o United states agency for international development (website: o Peru: Economic Development Alliance for San Martin Huánuco and Ucayali  Introduced African palm oil  Coffee (displacing coca-production) o What does this activity aim to achieve?  Reinforce technical training  Create market links  Develop business services  Build organizational  Entrepreneurial capacity WEEK 2 DAY 1 Introduction:  US officials visually displayed development through public campaigns to: o Adopt development projects i.e. Green Revolution  National governments  Peasants o Send messages/symbols of modernity  Showcase food technology  Build model villages  Research institutes  Practice training/experiments Summary  History of foreign aid  Characteristic of 1rst, 2dand 3 World  How the U.S. creates infrastructure of development Development: Showcasing  1940’s – 1970’s: development became a project of social engineering that rd sought to foster economic change in 3 World countries How did governments present development in target areas? How did rural peasants adapt or resist development?  To introduce development: o Showcasing was a standard practice of foreign aid  USAID collaborated with private foundations o Ford Foundation o Rockefeller Foundation o Carnegie Foundation  Government in Philippines, Peru and Vietnam o Hired technocrats (ministries, agencies) o Multidisciplinary teams (delivery of development)  Ford Foundation funded IRRI by mid-1950’s o Philippines  IRRI – International Rice Research Institute o Internal Wheat and Maize Improvement Center in Mexico o Peru – Potato’s o Bases on community development experience in India (Ford)  Ford Foundation Projects: 1. Community/village development: o Multidisciplinary teams identified  Village life  Introduced improvements (built road, etc.)  Trained youth (train the trainees)  Transmitted knowledge o social science research 2. Ford showcased development (to show/convince people the benefits of development)  Photos/bulletins (to transmit message of what development was)  Foreign assistance dependent on creating: o Images o Staged comparisons of village progress o Lessons learned from other areas in Asia  IRRI exhibited IR-8 (Miracle Rice)  Employ rice technology as symbol of international development  People did not resist this technology  Ford Foundation also believe in: o Project oriented approach o Institutionalizing o Collaborations for successful projects o New institutions seeking to educate the people/peasants  Attitudes  Technologies  Social engineering (sharing of cultural values)  Ford, Rockefeller and USAID built a model village, Los Banes in the Philippines o Built by an American architect  Military buildings (bases, industrial pavilions)  Supervised teams of Philippine architects  Experimental farm o State of the art buildings at Los Banos  Aluminum and glass structures (advanced building materials)  Air conditioning  Plumbing  Tiles, upholstery  Ranch style homes  Large  Tennis courts/sports  Pools  Purpose was to show people what development was and what it could be  To encourage 3 world to adapt to development, not resist it  Latin America – corporations also organized social life of plantations o Company towns (segregated by race and class) – sophisticated infrastructure  model homes  dancing halls  health clinics  entertainment fields (football, soccer, baseball)  Los Banos had an 80 acre experimental farm  Underground pipes  Soil imported from Java  Trainees from Asia  Karachi and Saigon  Trainings based on theories of rice varieties (IR-8, IR-9, IR-5)  Experiments were hands on including a write up  IR-8 with genetic characteristics  Shorter to avoid waste  Greener to absorbs more light  Fewer leaves  Rigid for mechanical harvest  Resistant to pests and disease  Can grow anywhere in Asia Summary  What were they (development agencies) showcasing? o Importance of model villages  Spread American culture  Modernity  Science brought to the undeveloped world  World view of progress  Top-down economic/social approach  The wealth of the rich will help the poor Development: Critique  Filipino scientists criticized IR-8, Miracle Rice o Farmers had to master new techniques to grow IR-8  Planting/harvesting  Additional costs  Irrigation  Threshing o IR-8 would also require  Credit  Distribution network Development  Ferdinand Marco showcased development through rice o Published rice yields o Exported miracle rice  Great fanfare  Falsified records  Imported rice to avoid famine o Used development for political gain and support DAY 2  USAID, Ford and Carnegie Foundations collaborated to implement a development project in Peru: Cornell-Peru Project (CPP) o Adapt development programs  National governments  Indian Problem  Model village o CPP modernized Indian population in Peru  Health  Education  Economy  Political Development: Case Studies PHILIPPINES PERU MEXICO TUBUAI What Rice Potatoes Pigs Potatoes Who How Why Development: Vicos  Peruvian government had historically good relations with the US, despite agricultural revolutions o Sold rubber and cocoa to US o Removed Axis-run transportation businesses  Sided with US in WWII o Expropriated Japanese immigrants o 1948 Manuel Odria came to power  He was supported by landowners  Friendly relations with foreign governments  Petroleum  Mining  Electrification o Similar to Philippines, several government institutions involved in Peruvian development  Preoccupied with educating/assimilating indigenous population  USAID  Carnegie and Ford Foundations  United Nations  Peru’s Bureau of Indian Affairs  Vicos was a model of social change  Replicated elsewhere  To bring allies to participate in development o CPP at Vicos sought to change/improve:  Health/diet (potatoes were the main food source)  Education (literacy)  Agriculture  Modernized peasantry o Major obstacle of development: indigenous population  High poverty rates  Second class status  Land monopolizations  Language barrier  Bolivia’s Revolution(instability in the region)  Agrarian land reform  Challenged US’s fears of communism and the security in the Western Hemp sphere o International development project took place in the context of national discussions on the Indian problem 1. Indians need protection of the State (indigenous people are inferior)  Paternalist approach (racist)  Wards of the state  Hopeless/inferior 2. Indigenous Indian Problem as racial problem  Poverty as a mark of racial inferiority 3. Mestizaje (racial mixing)  Turning Indians into mestizos 4. Race of agriculturalists  Role as farmers  In context of Peru’s interest in modernizing people, Cornell proposed a model project: o Health clinics o Education systems o Economic developments o Political aspects developed later  Anthropologist Allan Holmberg o Leadership role in Vicos/CPP o Created/allowed for political allies o Expanded research in:  Power  Wealth  Well-being  Skill  Economic inequality  Potential for revolution  Carlos Monge at Institute of Indigenous Affairs o Chief sponsor (encouraging political elites to join) o Did not advocate Mestizaje o Natural habitat o Acculturation  Spanish  Insertion into civic life  CPP sought to modernize population: o Leased hacienda owned by public trust o Sought to improve potato yields, enhance seed varieties o Teach growing techniques, fertilizer and pesticides o Green Revolution technology  Flaws of the Project o American Centered, Indian culture is ‘wrong’ o Oppressive of the culture o White mans ‘duty’ to lift them up o Ethical/cultural problems o Cornell university becomes new ‘Patron’ WEEK 3 DAY 1  International development influenced by: o Culture of poverty o Modernization o WID o WAD Culture of Poverty  Oscar Lewis’s book Five Families (1959) o Research in LA o People in Shantytowns  Unemployment  Lack of education  Culture of poverty produced unique cultural values  People learned a world view o Aspirations o Characters o Informs o Understanding of our place in the world  World view also produced poverty o Marginalization o Helplessness o Alienation o Dependency o Reproduces poverty  Shantytowns creates feelings of: o Alien, inferior, powerless o Unworthy of development, attention  Limited historical role in society  Oriented towards personal/local problems o Present views o Not in solidarity with development o Not in labor unions  NOT a radical people o Constituted the underclass  People had culture that hindered development o Fatalist view prevented economic mobility  Passed on from generations  Pathology of the poor  Victimized themselves  Influenced US governments view on poverty o War on poverty (President L.B. Johnson) o Developed international aid program Modernization Theory  WW Rostow’s modernization Theory proposed 5 Stages for economic development o Poor countries will follow the economic path of modern societies, only if under the proper conditions 1. Traditional Societies have substance based economies  Hunting and gathering  Fishing economies  Peasant economies  Agriculture is important yet underdeveloped o Intensive o Low levels of trading o Limited technology  Should follow the path of advanced societies  Not static o Increase acreage o Technological innovations  Crops, seeds, mainly  Frame of mind: new culture 2. Precondition to ‘Take Off’  Society must have manufacturing o Science, agriculture, industry  Develop markets  Must change cultural attitudes o Progress is possible o Better life, education, meeting new economy  Entrepreneurships (private/public) o Banks o Tradable o Centralized power of the state o Democracy 3. Take Off  A short period of intense growth o Invest in new industries o Savings/accumulation of capital o Industrialization o Technological innovations in agriculture and industry o Concentrate in one industry o Modern economy is priority 4. Drive to Maturity  Use of technology increases  National economic growth (diversifies)  Standard of living 5. The Age of High Mass Consumption  Last stage  Mass production/consumption  Economy flourishes in capitalist system o Feminist Critics  Feminist scholars criticized both theories  Does not take women into account Women in Development  Why did feminist scholars get involved in development debates? o Feminist movement began in the United States o United Nations Decade of Women o Boserup’s book  Global North feminist movement created awareness of status of women in society o Women entered labor market after WWII  Discrimination  Lower wages  Traditional occupations (i.e. secretaries, teachers)  National Organization for women o Led legal fight for EQUALITY  Equal employment opportunities o Demanded:  End to patriarchy  End to oppression in every fact of life  Sexuality  Marriage  Harassment!  UN declaration of the ‘Decade for Women’  Global conference in Mexico, 1975 o Global North o Global South  Equality of the Sexes  Elimination of sex based discrimination  Third World women demanded full participation in: o Development o Education o Jobs o Housing o Health o Peace  Critical of the Global North  UN commissioned study on the status of women o Esther Boserup’s Women’s Role in Economic Development  Tried to understand the culture of poverty  Pointed out the marginalization of women  Less wages  Discrimination in Green Revolution  Favored male farmers o Tractor drivers o Training course  Males were the target of development  Explained how African women had different economic role  In pre-colonial economics women:  Produced food  Males hunted/went to war  Shifting agricultural depends on division of labor  Colonial farming changed the status of women in African societies o Colonial empires imposed taxes o Extracted natural resources (i.e. minerals, wood, crops)  Unmarried men recruited for work o Mines, roads, plantations  Women assume farming responsibilities  Colonialism created economic structures o Exploitation o Poverty o Underdevelopment DAY 2 Introduction  International development was influenced by theories of: o Culture of poverty o Modernization o Women in development (WID)  Distribution of resources (pig farming)  Heavily criticized  SAP’s (structural adjustment programs) reduced efforts o Women and Development (WAD) Women in Development IMAGE/diagram  Emerges after African states become independent  After conference in Mexico city, development agencies could no longer ignore women o US Congress amended Foreign Assistance Act (1973)  Authorized foreign aid  USAID’s WID approach  Encourages donors to support WID  President Carter (1976) appointed Arvonne Fraser to lead WID: o She creates/build new model of development  Researches women’s roles in development  WID initiatives  Research into policy o Connect to Washington D.C.  WID moved to top of agenda  Sociologists, anthropologists, feminists and economists worked together to document women’s lives in the Third World o Documented:  Women work longer hours than men  Spend part of day gathering wood/fetching water  Involved in ‘arts and crafts’ to sell/trade in markets  Artisanal activities (tapestries, sweaters)  Had essential role in the economy  WID distributed technology that would solve women’s access to resources: o Cook stoves o Water pumps  Changes social life of women, social life organized around things like gathering water  Not all development changes things for the better  WID increase access to one important resource: o TIME  WID advocates argue that development directed resources to women: o Trainings  Veterinary (pig farming case study)  Accounting/finances  Savings o Family planning o Agricultural inputs  Seeds, pigs o Land (to farm, cultivate, build) o Capital  Radical feminists criticized WID: o Lourdes Beneria and Gita Sen (1981)  “Band-Aid” solution  Treating symptoms (poverty)  Not the illness (capitalist development) o Others argued that WID turned women into ‘clients’  Removed them from public life  Unconcerned with women’s unpaid work (domestic activities)  Western feminist approach to develop  Supported exploitation of Third World by First World o Concerned only with growth, not well being  Pig Project: Backyard Projects in Mexico o Goal of pig distribution among women  Empowerment  Open markets  Independent form husbands with their own money o Problems:  Did not change household dynamics  Assumed that women did not already know how to farm/raise pgs.  Power dynamic between development agencies and women  Potato Project in Tubaui o HOUSEHOLD conflict o All money controlled by men  Social organization o Good intentions o Men maintained the power within the household  Patriarchy o Money does not mean power  If there are not structural changes to social organizations, then there will be no development  1980’s President Reagan changed foreign policy: o Believed US should have prominent role in the world o Denied that Global North was responsible for Global South’s weakness o Cut back on foreign aid o Cause of the demise/downfall of WID approach to development WEEK 4 DAY 1 International Development: Views of Poverty  Ideological problem  Culture: behaviors  Modernization: lack of progress  WID view: lack of resources  WAD view: social relations o Households o Patriarchy o Gender Women in Development  Decline of WID resulted from the global economic crisis of the 1970’s and 80’s: OIL CRISIS! o Impacted by the crisis  Nations  International Monetary Fund (IMF), financial institutions  Donors shifted aid paradigm  Loans contingent upon implementation of SAP’s  SAP’s imposed several cut backs in: o State owned enterprises  Privatized o Opening of markets (asked nation states)  Allow for free markets o Lower barriers to foreign capital  Export-oriented markets o African Palm o SAP’s also emphasized huge cut back in Latin American social programs and services  Education  Socio-welfare  Health  Justification: to end corruption in Latino America  Had huge social consequences  “Lost Decade” of the 1980’s o Unemployment o Informal economy (not regulated by the state) o Poverty increased o Food insecurity o Exacerbated economic inequality o Urban women highly effected by SAP’s in Latin America  Pushed into part time work  Secretaries  Teachers  Moonlighting  Multiple jobs  Formal (teachers) vs. informal (craft sales) economy  Entered marginal job markets  Domestic employment o Rural-urban migration o International migration  Service industry  Tourist industry  Competed with males for jobs (breadwinners)  Crisis of the breadwinners within the family and job markets  Crisis of identity for males o Many women became part of the growing informal economy  Home/housework (industrial piecework done in home, nonwage labor, family or household)  Food vendors  Domestic work  Migration o Benicia’s article Accounting for Women’s Work  Women’s contributions to:  National economies  Labor force participation o Poor accounting records o Undercounted/invisible  Inadequate programs of development  Argues that women are unaccounted for in:  Subsistence production  Informal paid work  Domestic production  Volunteer work  Consequences:  In Latin American, women organize to face consequences of SAP measures:  Neighborhood self-help groups o Ex. Communal kitchens  Participated in autonomous Rotating Credit Associations (RCA)  Capacity to organize o In short: WID provided resources to women because many social and economic problems would be solved  Saw women as:  Food production  Family welfare  Resources would lead to equality  Empowerment  Reaganomics and SAP’s led to decline in WID  In tune with neoliberal economic policies, the IMF decided to target women for development: o Microloans because women were seems as:  Reliable  Responsible  Concerned with the welfare of the family  TRUSTWORTHY  Repayment of the loans  Women and Microcredit o Microlensing was an organized program o Individual banking requires  Credit history  Repayment  Risky o Group lending schemes  Social programs within the group to repay  Reliable repayment  IMF: RCA’s and ROSCA’s in the agrarian world ROSCA’s ASCA’s (Accumulating Savings and Credit Associations No management Management No records Interests No interest profits  Mama Cash is a microcredit program organized by a NGO Woman and Development (WAD)  WAD scholars argue that microcredit programs have limitations o Loans do not empower women  Social groups, not women  Benefits are social more than economic o Burden on women  Forced to repay loans  Strings attached o Women are not in charge of loans  In hands of the husband o Women are not the hopeless victims of economic inequality: RCA’s in Latin America are knowns as:  ROSCAs, Cantinas, Tandems, Vices  Informal banking systems of the poor  Independent from state or financial institutions  International agencies assumes women cannot plan or solve their own issues o RCA’s are planned by a group of women  Involved in recruitment efforts  Settling contribution  Deciding common pool organization  Distribution system  Do the poor plan development?  Are they helpless/hopeless? o In RCA, a group of women contribute to the common money pool  Each receives money in turn  Turn based on need  Building a room  Starting a small store/business  Travelling  Family emergency  Education for children  Participate based on cultural values  Trust, respect, honor  Savings allow women to invest in the community  In addition to loans and RCA’s women have access to other informal credit systems:  Borrowing money o Lenders o Mortgaged land/home  Credit from store owners o Repayment, word of honor o Failure to repay = loss of access


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.