Part 1 - International Development
Part 1 - International Development Fem 30
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Devyn J on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Fem 30 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Figueroa in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Women, Development and Globalization in Feminist Studies at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Feminist Studies 30 – Women and Development WEEK 1 DAY 2 Introduction: Students will understand the limitations of international development from a feminist perspective What is development? o Concept (idea) o Policy (course of action) What did international development entail> o Marshall Plan Why did development become international policy? o Political turmoil Shirin M Rai argues that development is a concept President Truman’s Speech (1944) o Need to share American progress with the world o Describe development as a need to share: Scientific advances Industrial progress Technical knowledge o Described underdeveloped areas: Misery Inadequate food Disease Primitive economic life Poverty o The speech was significant because it defined the concept of development o Framework for international policy Set the policies Identified the places o Development became a policy seeking to control the manner in which countries develop their economies Planned international development o Why was the USA concerned with international development? o The Second World War devastated Europe Infrastructure Economy o Reconstruction would then need international involvement o The devastation caused many social problems Food shortages Unemployment Poverty Riots o The USA organized the Bretton Woods Conference: New Hampshire – 1944 o 44 nations sent delegations England and US led efforts France Soviet Union refused to attend o Agreed to reconstruct Europe and Japan by creating the institutional banking framework o Bretton Woods Conference engendered the international banking institutions International Monetary Bank IBR/World Bank (International Bank of Reconstruction) o International Banking had a purpose: Encouraged World trade Open markets Movement of capital Planned development Discouraged Trade blocks National protection o Import substitution industrialization o Reconstruction was not possible without international aid Secretary of state George Marshall o Marshall Plan present to the president Economic aid Food aid Loans Grants Exported manufacturing goods Technology Machinery Vehicles Equipment Technical assistance Economists Mathematicians Engineers Exchange programs o European advisors came to the USA Studied factories, agriculture and manufacturing plants o Thus the USA played an extremely important role in international development: Led the reconstruction Created the infrastructure Developed the model Invested billions of dollars o There were also political events that worried national leaders in the US Post-colonial liberation movements India (1947) Algeria (1954-1962) Ethiopia Belize Revolutionary movements in the “underdeveloped world” Chinese Revolution (1949) Cuban Revolution (1959) o Given the international political climate after WW2, the US and other nations treated international development as a question of security o Cold War period divided the international community into “Three Worlds” Western nations – first world Soviet bloc – second world Non-aligned countries – third world o The third world became a geopolitical area characterized by extreme: Poverty Misery Undeveloped backwardness o United states agency for international development (website: http://map.usaid.gov/) o Peru: Economic Development Alliance for San Martin Huánuco and Ucayali Introduced African palm oil Coffee (displacing coca-production) o What does this activity aim to achieve? Reinforce technical training Create market links Develop business services Build organizational Entrepreneurial capacity WEEK 2 DAY 1 Introduction: US officials visually displayed development through public campaigns to: o Adopt development projects i.e. Green Revolution National governments Peasants o Send messages/symbols of modernity Showcase food technology Build model villages Research institutes Practice training/experiments Summary History of foreign aid Characteristic of 1rst, 2dand 3 World How the U.S. creates infrastructure of development Development: Showcasing 1940’s – 1970’s: development became a project of social engineering that rd sought to foster economic change in 3 World countries How did governments present development in target areas? How did rural peasants adapt or resist development? To introduce development: o Showcasing was a standard practice of foreign aid USAID collaborated with private foundations o Ford Foundation o Rockefeller Foundation o Carnegie Foundation Government in Philippines, Peru and Vietnam o Hired technocrats (ministries, agencies) o Multidisciplinary teams (delivery of development) Ford Foundation funded IRRI by mid-1950’s o Philippines IRRI – International Rice Research Institute o Internal Wheat and Maize Improvement Center in Mexico o Peru – Potato’s o Bases on community development experience in India (Ford) Ford Foundation Projects: 1. Community/village development: o Multidisciplinary teams identified Village life Introduced improvements (built road, etc.) Trained youth (train the trainees) Transmitted knowledge o social science research 2. Ford showcased development (to show/convince people the benefits of development) Photos/bulletins (to transmit message of what development was) Foreign assistance dependent on creating: o Images o Staged comparisons of village progress o Lessons learned from other areas in Asia IRRI exhibited IR-8 (Miracle Rice) Employ rice technology as symbol of international development People did not resist this technology Ford Foundation also believe in: o Project oriented approach o Institutionalizing o Collaborations for successful projects o New institutions seeking to educate the people/peasants Attitudes Technologies Social engineering (sharing of cultural values) Ford, Rockefeller and USAID built a model village, Los Banes in the Philippines o Built by an American architect Military buildings (bases, industrial pavilions) Supervised teams of Philippine architects Experimental farm o State of the art buildings at Los Banos Aluminum and glass structures (advanced building materials) Air conditioning Plumbing Tiles, upholstery Ranch style homes Large Tennis courts/sports Pools Purpose was to show people what development was and what it could be To encourage 3 world to adapt to development, not resist it Latin America – corporations also organized social life of plantations o Company towns (segregated by race and class) – sophisticated infrastructure model homes dancing halls health clinics entertainment fields (football, soccer, baseball) Los Banos had an 80 acre experimental farm Underground pipes Soil imported from Java Trainees from Asia Karachi and Saigon Trainings based on theories of rice varieties (IR-8, IR-9, IR-5) Experiments were hands on including a write up IR-8 with genetic characteristics Shorter to avoid waste Greener to absorbs more light Fewer leaves Rigid for mechanical harvest Resistant to pests and disease Can grow anywhere in Asia Summary What were they (development agencies) showcasing? o Importance of model villages Spread American culture Modernity Science brought to the undeveloped world World view of progress Top-down economic/social approach The wealth of the rich will help the poor Development: Critique Filipino scientists criticized IR-8, Miracle Rice o Farmers had to master new techniques to grow IR-8 Planting/harvesting Additional costs Irrigation Threshing o IR-8 would also require Credit Distribution network Development Ferdinand Marco showcased development through rice o Published rice yields o Exported miracle rice Great fanfare Falsified records Imported rice to avoid famine o Used development for political gain and support DAY 2 USAID, Ford and Carnegie Foundations collaborated to implement a development project in Peru: Cornell-Peru Project (CPP) o Adapt development programs National governments Indian Problem Model village o CPP modernized Indian population in Peru Health Education Economy Political Development: Case Studies PHILIPPINES PERU MEXICO TUBUAI What Rice Potatoes Pigs Potatoes Who How Why Development: Vicos Peruvian government had historically good relations with the US, despite agricultural revolutions o Sold rubber and cocoa to US o Removed Axis-run transportation businesses Sided with US in WWII o Expropriated Japanese immigrants o 1948 Manuel Odria came to power He was supported by landowners Friendly relations with foreign governments Petroleum Mining Electrification o Similar to Philippines, several government institutions involved in Peruvian development Preoccupied with educating/assimilating indigenous population USAID Carnegie and Ford Foundations United Nations Peru’s Bureau of Indian Affairs Vicos was a model of social change Replicated elsewhere To bring allies to participate in development o CPP at Vicos sought to change/improve: Health/diet (potatoes were the main food source) Education (literacy) Agriculture Modernized peasantry o Major obstacle of development: indigenous population High poverty rates Second class status Land monopolizations Language barrier Bolivia’s Revolution(instability in the region) Agrarian land reform Challenged US’s fears of communism and the security in the Western Hemp sphere o International development project took place in the context of national discussions on the Indian problem 1. Indians need protection of the State (indigenous people are inferior) Paternalist approach (racist) Wards of the state Hopeless/inferior 2. Indigenous Indian Problem as racial problem Poverty as a mark of racial inferiority 3. Mestizaje (racial mixing) Turning Indians into mestizos 4. Race of agriculturalists Role as farmers In context of Peru’s interest in modernizing people, Cornell proposed a model project: o Health clinics o Education systems o Economic developments o Political aspects developed later Anthropologist Allan Holmberg o Leadership role in Vicos/CPP o Created/allowed for political allies o Expanded research in: Power Wealth Well-being Skill Economic inequality Potential for revolution Carlos Monge at Institute of Indigenous Affairs o Chief sponsor (encouraging political elites to join) o Did not advocate Mestizaje o Natural habitat o Acculturation Spanish Insertion into civic life CPP sought to modernize population: o Leased hacienda owned by public trust o Sought to improve potato yields, enhance seed varieties o Teach growing techniques, fertilizer and pesticides o Green Revolution technology Flaws of the Project o American Centered, Indian culture is ‘wrong’ o Oppressive of the culture o White mans ‘duty’ to lift them up o Ethical/cultural problems o Cornell university becomes new ‘Patron’ WEEK 3 DAY 1 International development influenced by: o Culture of poverty o Modernization o WID o WAD Culture of Poverty Oscar Lewis’s book Five Families (1959) o Research in LA o People in Shantytowns Unemployment Lack of education Culture of poverty produced unique cultural values People learned a world view o Aspirations o Characters o Informs o Understanding of our place in the world World view also produced poverty o Marginalization o Helplessness o Alienation o Dependency o Reproduces poverty Shantytowns creates feelings of: o Alien, inferior, powerless o Unworthy of development, attention Limited historical role in society Oriented towards personal/local problems o Present views o Not in solidarity with development o Not in labor unions NOT a radical people o Constituted the underclass People had culture that hindered development o Fatalist view prevented economic mobility Passed on from generations Pathology of the poor Victimized themselves Influenced US governments view on poverty o War on poverty (President L.B. Johnson) o Developed international aid program Modernization Theory WW Rostow’s modernization Theory proposed 5 Stages for economic development o Poor countries will follow the economic path of modern societies, only if under the proper conditions 1. Traditional Societies have substance based economies Hunting and gathering Fishing economies Peasant economies Agriculture is important yet underdeveloped o Intensive o Low levels of trading o Limited technology Should follow the path of advanced societies Not static o Increase acreage o Technological innovations Crops, seeds, mainly Frame of mind: new culture 2. Precondition to ‘Take Off’ Society must have manufacturing o Science, agriculture, industry Develop markets Must change cultural attitudes o Progress is possible o Better life, education, meeting new economy Entrepreneurships (private/public) o Banks o Tradable o Centralized power of the state o Democracy 3. Take Off A short period of intense growth o Invest in new industries o Savings/accumulation of capital o Industrialization o Technological innovations in agriculture and industry o Concentrate in one industry o Modern economy is priority 4. Drive to Maturity Use of technology increases National economic growth (diversifies) Standard of living 5. The Age of High Mass Consumption Last stage Mass production/consumption Economy flourishes in capitalist system o Feminist Critics Feminist scholars criticized both theories Does not take women into account Women in Development Why did feminist scholars get involved in development debates? o Feminist movement began in the United States o United Nations Decade of Women o Boserup’s book Global North feminist movement created awareness of status of women in society o Women entered labor market after WWII Discrimination Lower wages Traditional occupations (i.e. secretaries, teachers) National Organization for women o Led legal fight for EQUALITY Equal employment opportunities o Demanded: End to patriarchy End to oppression in every fact of life Sexuality Marriage Harassment! UN declaration of the ‘Decade for Women’ Global conference in Mexico, 1975 o Global North o Global South Equality of the Sexes Elimination of sex based discrimination Third World women demanded full participation in: o Development o Education o Jobs o Housing o Health o Peace Critical of the Global North UN commissioned study on the status of women o Esther Boserup’s Women’s Role in Economic Development Tried to understand the culture of poverty Pointed out the marginalization of women Less wages Discrimination in Green Revolution Favored male farmers o Tractor drivers o Training course Males were the target of development Explained how African women had different economic role In pre-colonial economics women: Produced food Males hunted/went to war Shifting agricultural depends on division of labor Colonial farming changed the status of women in African societies o Colonial empires imposed taxes o Extracted natural resources (i.e. minerals, wood, crops) Unmarried men recruited for work o Mines, roads, plantations Women assume farming responsibilities Colonialism created economic structures o Exploitation o Poverty o Underdevelopment DAY 2 Introduction International development was influenced by theories of: o Culture of poverty o Modernization o Women in development (WID) Distribution of resources (pig farming) Heavily criticized SAP’s (structural adjustment programs) reduced efforts o Women and Development (WAD) Women in Development IMAGE/diagram Emerges after African states become independent After conference in Mexico city, development agencies could no longer ignore women o US Congress amended Foreign Assistance Act (1973) Authorized foreign aid USAID’s WID approach Encourages donors to support WID President Carter (1976) appointed Arvonne Fraser to lead WID: o She creates/build new model of development Researches women’s roles in development WID initiatives Research into policy o Connect to Washington D.C. WID moved to top of agenda Sociologists, anthropologists, feminists and economists worked together to document women’s lives in the Third World o Documented: Women work longer hours than men Spend part of day gathering wood/fetching water Involved in ‘arts and crafts’ to sell/trade in markets Artisanal activities (tapestries, sweaters) Had essential role in the economy WID distributed technology that would solve women’s access to resources: o Cook stoves o Water pumps Changes social life of women, social life organized around things like gathering water Not all development changes things for the better WID increase access to one important resource: o TIME WID advocates argue that development directed resources to women: o Trainings Veterinary (pig farming case study) Accounting/finances Savings o Family planning o Agricultural inputs Seeds, pigs o Land (to farm, cultivate, build) o Capital Radical feminists criticized WID: o Lourdes Beneria and Gita Sen (1981) “Band-Aid” solution Treating symptoms (poverty) Not the illness (capitalist development) o Others argued that WID turned women into ‘clients’ Removed them from public life Unconcerned with women’s unpaid work (domestic activities) Western feminist approach to develop Supported exploitation of Third World by First World o Concerned only with growth, not well being Pig Project: Backyard Projects in Mexico o Goal of pig distribution among women Empowerment Open markets Independent form husbands with their own money o Problems: Did not change household dynamics Assumed that women did not already know how to farm/raise pgs. Power dynamic between development agencies and women Potato Project in Tubaui o HOUSEHOLD conflict o All money controlled by men Social organization o Good intentions o Men maintained the power within the household Patriarchy o Money does not mean power If there are not structural changes to social organizations, then there will be no development 1980’s President Reagan changed foreign policy: o Believed US should have prominent role in the world o Denied that Global North was responsible for Global South’s weakness o Cut back on foreign aid o Cause of the demise/downfall of WID approach to development WEEK 4 DAY 1 International Development: Views of Poverty Ideological problem Culture: behaviors Modernization: lack of progress WID view: lack of resources WAD view: social relations o Households o Patriarchy o Gender Women in Development Decline of WID resulted from the global economic crisis of the 1970’s and 80’s: OIL CRISIS! o Impacted by the crisis Nations International Monetary Fund (IMF), financial institutions Donors shifted aid paradigm Loans contingent upon implementation of SAP’s SAP’s imposed several cut backs in: o State owned enterprises Privatized o Opening of markets (asked nation states) Allow for free markets o Lower barriers to foreign capital Export-oriented markets o African Palm o SAP’s also emphasized huge cut back in Latin American social programs and services Education Socio-welfare Health Justification: to end corruption in Latino America Had huge social consequences “Lost Decade” of the 1980’s o Unemployment o Informal economy (not regulated by the state) o Poverty increased o Food insecurity o Exacerbated economic inequality o Urban women highly effected by SAP’s in Latin America Pushed into part time work Secretaries Teachers Moonlighting Multiple jobs Formal (teachers) vs. informal (craft sales) economy Entered marginal job markets Domestic employment o Rural-urban migration o International migration Service industry Tourist industry Competed with males for jobs (breadwinners) Crisis of the breadwinners within the family and job markets Crisis of identity for males o Many women became part of the growing informal economy Home/housework (industrial piecework done in home, nonwage labor, family or household) Food vendors Domestic work Migration o Benicia’s article Accounting for Women’s Work Women’s contributions to: National economies Labor force participation o Poor accounting records o Undercounted/invisible Inadequate programs of development Argues that women are unaccounted for in: Subsistence production Informal paid work Domestic production Volunteer work Consequences: In Latin American, women organize to face consequences of SAP measures: Neighborhood self-help groups o Ex. Communal kitchens Participated in autonomous Rotating Credit Associations (RCA) Capacity to organize o In short: WID provided resources to women because many social and economic problems would be solved Saw women as: Food production Family welfare Resources would lead to equality Empowerment Reaganomics and SAP’s led to decline in WID In tune with neoliberal economic policies, the IMF decided to target women for development: o Microloans because women were seems as: Reliable Responsible Concerned with the welfare of the family TRUSTWORTHY Repayment of the loans Women and Microcredit o Microlensing was an organized program o Individual banking requires Credit history Repayment Risky o Group lending schemes Social programs within the group to repay Reliable repayment IMF: RCA’s and ROSCA’s in the agrarian world ROSCA’s ASCA’s (Accumulating Savings and Credit Associations No management Management No records Interests No interest profits Mama Cash is a microcredit program organized by a NGO Woman and Development (WAD) WAD scholars argue that microcredit programs have limitations o Loans do not empower women Social groups, not women Benefits are social more than economic o Burden on women Forced to repay loans Strings attached o Women are not in charge of loans In hands of the husband o Women are not the hopeless victims of economic inequality: RCA’s in Latin America are knowns as: ROSCAs, Cantinas, Tandems, Vices Informal banking systems of the poor Independent from state or financial institutions International agencies assumes women cannot plan or solve their own issues o RCA’s are planned by a group of women Involved in recruitment efforts Settling contribution Deciding common pool organization Distribution system Do the poor plan development? Are they helpless/hopeless? o In RCA, a group of women contribute to the common money pool Each receives money in turn Turn based on need Building a room Starting a small store/business Travelling Family emergency Education for children Participate based on cultural values Trust, respect, honor Savings allow women to invest in the community In addition to loans and RCA’s women have access to other informal credit systems: Borrowing money o Lenders o Mortgaged land/home Credit from store owners o Repayment, word of honor o Failure to repay = loss of access
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