World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present (Week 5 Notes)
World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present (Week 5 Notes) ARC 318L
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luca Tomescu on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARC 318L at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Richard Cleary in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present in Architecture at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present Tuesday, September 27, 2016 Japan: East Meets West Arrival o Commodore Perry landed near Yokohama, Japan in 1854 o Westerners wanted to trade with Japan but it closed itself off o Japan was in turmoil due to an all-out civil war At the Battle of Hakodate, the Tokugawa shogunate was defeated by the emperor’s forces There was a mix of modern and traditional weaponry and uniforms Westerners would give weapons in return for trade agreements o Emperor Mutsuhito (Meiji) ruled 1867-1912 Became emperor at 15; power was held by others o Japan was autonomous and went through a very deliberate process of engagement with the West Sense that Japan needed to industrialize and develop high official culture that could relate to the rest of the world Redevelopment of Japanese trade, manufacturing, and teaching culture o There was huge technology transfer from West to East Exemplified by English wooden locomotive used as a teaching tool at Kyoto Imperial University Old Japanese Architecture o Traditional house construction: Japanese building was headed by carpenters responsible for leading design and construction o Didn’t have a dedicated architect to interact with clients and design the building o Hadn’t developed monumental stone masonry o Buildings largely made of wood; tiles used on the roof o In Tokyo, the Meiji gov’t took over the Kuroda family residence for use by the newly established ministry of foreign affairs Needed specialized people to be the liaisons b/w imperial gov’t and westerners Western Architectural Influence o Japanese wanted to distance themselves from the split, shogunate legacy o They had no architects of their own, so they brought in Western architects for periods of time o Teaching institutes began teaching architecture o Rokumeikan (Deer Cry Pavilion) in Tokyo, designed by Josiah Conder, 1883 Served as the official residence for distinguished foreign visitors and a point of contact for them and prominent Japanese Purpose was to teach Japanese western ways Created in the European high style symbol of progress and differentiation from before o Kobe: Houses from foreigners’ district, 1909 and 1880s Westerners allowed to build in certain zones (trade zones) Europeans built architecture that they were comfortable with A house was built in the American style Some Japanese influence in the roof: materials and curled corners o Tokyo: Ginza District, rebuilt under direction of Irish engineer Thomas James Water, 1872-1877 An entire street that looks like it could be European Classical features, stonemasonry construction Details in the roofline have bits and pieces of Japanese construction patterns o Tokyo: Ueno Imperial Museum (national museum), Joseph Conder, 1881 National museum as an institution was imported from the West Classical composition, symmetrical, system of arches, masonry After 1923 earthquake, part of the building collapsed Building had “Saracenic” details Muslim influence Wanted to make Japanese architecture exotic because they didn’t have their own style (according to Europeans) o Tokyo: National Museum, Jin Watanabe, 1937; replaced Condor’s building This one is distinctly Japansese o Kyoto: National (Imperial) Museum, Tokuma Katayama, 1892-1895 Katayama represents a generation of young architects trained in the European architectural ways Taught by English teachers and architects Also went West, to Europe and America, to go to school there Appears to belong in the West o Tokyo: Ginza district in 1910 By then, it had streetcars, powerlines, etc. Mixture of Western and Japanese architectural styles o Kyoto: Heian Shrine, reconstructed by Kigo Kyoyoshi and Ito Chuta in 1895 Commemorates the Heian period (794-1165) From late 1880s, national gov’t promoted study of traditional Japanese architecture, especially that before the Tokugawa Shogunate Looked to revive ancient architecture o Tokyo: Nihon Kangyo Bank built by Tsumaki Yorinaka in 1899 Example of Shrine and Temple style (shajiyo) Use of wood was a deliberate reference to ancient construction techniques o Kyoto: Higashi Honganji, Main Hall, Ito Hirazaemon, 1911-1915 Reinforced concrete structure Japanese Influence on the West o London: International Exposition 1862, Japanese Court Japonisme o Western architects had a great interest in Japanese culture Market for Japanese art o Japanese prints enjoyed in the West were not contemporary ones Went back to older artistic style o London: Leyland House, Peacock Room, Thomas Jeckyll, James Whistler, 1876 Examples of Japanese prints o Kyoto: Katsura Palace, 1620-1658 (Edi period) th th Europeans interested in old Japanese architecture from 17 and 18 centuries, not current ones Architects liked the simplicity of the forms, direct representation of construction, openness o Newport, Rhode Island: Newport Casino, McKin, Mead & White, 1879 o Japanese Pavilion, 1876 Centennial International Exhibition in Philadelphia Introduced certain Japanese features to the public o Chicago: World’s Columbian Exposition, Ho-o-Den, 1893 A chance for the public to encounter, in full scale, a building of traditional Japanese architecture o Kankakee, IL: Warren Hickox Residence, Frank Lloyd Wright, 1900 Affinity to broad, overhang qualities of Japanese architecture Developed a much deeper appreciation for Japanese culture Wright was a great collector of old, 18 century Japanese prints Saw the prints as structural art; geometry as the grammar of design o Tokyo: Imperial Hotel, Frank Lloyd Wright, 1913-1923 Hotel meant for Westerners, similar design to imperial palace Had everything westerners liked Westerns could also come into contact with high up Japanese people Unlike other Western architects, Wright wanted to avoid replicating normative Western architecture Didn’t want to replicate any Japanese architecture or impose a foreign style Wright wanted to create a thing unto itself using the materials available Forms came out of geometric forms and gestures Key features of Wright’s structural and mechanical systems to resist earthquakes Reinforced concrete frame with extra attention to shear in the placement of steel reinforcement in the beams Seismic joints at 40 foot intervals along the walls Low center of gravity Flexible connections for utilities so they would be less likely to snap Kanto earthquake happened in 1923, demolishing buildings and starting fires Hotel was damaged but it was repairable Pond in front of the hotel was used as a water source for fighting fire Imperial Hotel fragment was relocated at the Meiji Museum The rest was demolished because it was a small hotel on very valuable property Thursday, September 29, 2016 The House Beautiful William Morris o He and his wife, Jane Burden, were members of “Pre-Raphaelites,” who aimed to recreate art that existed prior to the high Renaissance (before Raphael) The Renaissance had been period of great experimentation Red House, Philip Webb, 1859 o Located in Bexleyheath, Kent (England); also designed by William Morris o Morris wasn’t a great artist or architect, but he was in the middle of artistic development o Morris was an heir to the ideas of Pugin and Ruskin He and his group were critical of the arts of the industrial revolution; saw them as corrupted Interested in recovering a new organization for craftsmanship; wanted to go back to spirituality and craftsmanship of Medieval times Used old techniques reminds people of a past time Possesses a clean look all about it o Built in the Gothic style o Made without the use of machine production wanted to get back the sense of craftsmanship and create a strong relationship between the client and craftsmen o Emphasis on raw, man-made work; shows the visual weight of each element of a room o After building the house, Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co., founded in 1861 to produce high quality, hand-crafted furniture, wallpapers and fabrics, stained glass, books, objets d’art Production by hand made everything very expensive only the wealthy could afford to purchase it Successful in their designs o Primarily Medieval-inspired; Japonisme hadn’t started in full force yet o The Arts & Crafts Movement Flourished ca. 18802 – 1917 Included amateurs and professionals Often tied to social reform It was an attitude valuing design and craft and a way of life embracing the arts Ideas spread by “clubs” that people formed to discuss the movement There were international magazines Many of these pieces included chairs, stained class, lamps, etc. No common style; emphasis was on the handcraft aspect Hill House, Charles Rennie Mackintosh with Margaret MacDonald Mackintosh, 1902- 1903 o In Helensburgh (Scotland o Similar in structure to Claypotts Castle in Dundee, Scotland rom the 16 century Time of fascination with these Medieval castles in Scotland Not replication, more of a point of departure; final result is in the spirirt of the castle o Charles collaborated with his wife on the design of the interiors They sought to create a Gesamtkunstwerk: a total work of art Every element works together to form this singular piece of art o Mackintoshes were inspired by Japonisme and Medieval art Robie House, Frank Lloyd Wright, 1908 o Built in Chicago o “Organic” refers to entity; also “integral” or “Intrinsic” “Part-to-whole-as-whole-is-to-part” Wright thought Morris was on the right track “A building should appear to grow easily from its site” o Wright wanted to avoid the mere cuteness of the picturesque o Front of the house faced south, towards the Plaisance (a large, grassy area) o Dominant quality of the frontage was its width o Wanted to provide views from inside the house to the green space o Robie house built of Roman brick with raked horizontal mortar joints and flush, brick-colored vertical joints Roman brick is very wide, paralleling the length of the house Appears that the entire house flows from side to side o Living and dining room conceived as one, continuous space o Wright expected the residents to live within the house in a certain way o Wright had his houses specially furnished to be part of the design o Admired craftsmanship but acknowledged the presence and power of machines; rejected the idea that machines are the problem