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by: ovraiti steven

chapter_19_beginning__study_soup_sample_.pdf BIOL 106

Marketplace > Minnesota State University - Mankato > Biology > BIOL 106 > chapter_19_beginning__study_soup_sample_ pdf
ovraiti steven
Minnesota State University, Mankato

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General Biology II
Dr. Matthew Kaproth
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by ovraiti steven on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 106 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Matthew Kaproth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Minnesota State University - Mankato.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 19 – Evolution of Populations Review/Learn terminology Gene – a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some  characteristic of the offspring Chromosome – a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living  cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes . How many sets of homologous chromosomes do many plants and most animals have? —23pair? No  there is a wide range for different species Dogs=39 pairs (canis lupus)  rats=46 pairs Mosquito=3 pairs Some type of Fish=52 pairs Black bear= 37 pairs Fruit fly=4 pair Jumper ant=1 pair  Me and you=23 pairs Does the number of chromosomes differ according to species? ­­­all canis lupus (dog) have the same pair  of chromosomes Horses and donkeys are different species and they produce a mule.... they have different numbers of  chromosomes and their offspring cannot breed with another donkey …so it’s not a viable specie What is the “origin” of the sets of chromosomes? ­­  Locus (pl. loci) – specific site of a gene on a chromosome (location of genes) Allele – gene variations that arise by mutation and exist at the same relative locations on homologous chromosomes Dominant allele;  trait which confers the same physical appearance whether an individual has two copies of the trait or one copy of the dominant trait and one copy of the recessive trait (capitalized) Recessive allele; an allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is  identical Homozygous dominant condition ; 2 dominant  Homozygous recessive condition ; 2 recessive Heterozygous condition ; having two different alleles for a given gene on the homologous chromosome Genotype –  underlying genetic makeup, consisting of both physically visible and non­expressed alleles, of an  organism­­­­genotype (gene­type) Phenotype –  observable traits expressed by an organism (physical­type) Gene pool –  the sum of all the alleles in a population Frequency –  allele frequency (or gene frequency) is the rate at which a specific allele appears within a population Changes in Allele Frequency;  . A change in this frequency over time would constitute evolution in the population. The allele frequency within a given population can change depending on environmental factors; therefore,  certain alleles become more widespread than others during the process of natural selection. The Hardy­Weinberg Principle allows predictions of allele and genotype frequencies Godfrey Hardy, an English mathematician & Wilhelm Weinberg, a German physician came up with it  independently in 1908.  stated that a population’s allele and genotype frequencies are inherently stable—unless some  kind of evolutionary force is acting upon the population, neither the allele nor the genotypic frequencies would change. Genetic equilibrium (Hardy­Weinberg equilibrium) occurs if FIVE assumptions/criteria/ conditions are  met. There are no evolutionary forces acting upon it—generation after generation would have the same gene pool and genetic  structure, and these equations would all hold true all of the time 1. No new mutations. ­ no alteration of genes or new genes formed 2. No migration. ­ no organisms are coming in or leaving 3. Random mating. – no preference of mating ­no artificial selection 4. Large population size. ­genes are less likely to be lost in a large population 5. No natural selection. – nothing like survival of the fittest  Two equations p + q = 1: all the p alleles and all the q alleles make up all of the alleles for that locus that are found in the population p2 + 2pq + q 2= 1: the frequency of pp individuals is simply p 2; the frequency of pq individuals is 2pq; and the frequency of qq individuals is q 2 if the parent’s frequency is the same as the offspring’s then you have genetic equilibrium (no evolution)


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