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Biology 10 Week 6 Notes

by: Serena

Biology 10 Week 6 Notes Biol 10

California State University, Fresno
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

These notes cover the topics of Photosynthesis, C3 vs C4 Plants, High Fructose Corn Syrup, BMI, Obesity Trends in the US, and Processed Foods
Life Science
Stephanie Coffman
Class Notes
Biology, Life Science, Nurition, Photosynthesis
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Serena on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 10 at California State University, Fresno taught by Stephanie Coffman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Life Science in Biology at California State University, Fresno.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
• Definition Life Science Monday, September 26, 2016 • Important Week's Topic: Nutrition Important Points: Goal of Photosynthesisis to create Today's Topics: Carbohydrates  Photosynthesis Photosynthesisis the opposite of Cellular  Proteins Respiration  C3 vs C4 Plants The function of a protein is determined  High Fructose Corn Syrup by the sequence of the amino acids 4 Structural Steps to Proteins C3 vs C4 Plants Summary  Photosynthesis: ○ Carbon Dioxide comes in through the stomata. With solar energy it is convertedinto glucose. ○ Water comes in through the roots & goes to the leaves. With solar energy it is convertedinto oxygen.  The side chain is the most unique & important part of an amino acid, each one has a different side chain  C3 Plants grow mostly in arid areas, are energy efficient, like CO , does not like 13 2 CO 2,ter is lost to evaporation in hot climates  C4 Plants have an extra step before Calvin cycle, which is much more efficient. Stomata only needs to be opened a little which means water loss is minimized in warm climates. However this requires more energy.  High Fructose Corn Syrup is made by stripping corn of all of it nutrients until is it essentially just sugar  Our bodies cannot handle too much fructose hitting us at once, excess fructose leads to excess fat production in the liver Topic #1: Photosynthesis • The goal is to create Carbohydrates • Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen • Energy to do this comes from the sun • Carbon Dioxide (CO )2+ Water (H O)2> Oxygen (O ) +2Glucose (C H 6 12 6 • Opposite of cellular respiration Sub-Topic #1: Input • Carbon Dioxide  Comes in through the air through little holes on the underside of leaves □ Stomata- function is to open to let CO 2n, at the same time they end up losing water • Water  Comes in through the roots  Goes to the leaves Sub-Topic #2: Reactions • Photo • Photo  Taking in water, using solar energy, and creating oxygen • Synthesis  Building the sugar  Take in carbon dioxide, using solar energy, to create glucose Sub-Topic #3: 7 Parts Part 1: "Photo" Reaction 1. H 2-splitting photo system  Absorb light from sun  Convert to chemical energy by transferring to electrons  Split water 2. 1st e-transport chain  Electrons fall down chain  Releases energy which is harnessed into ATP 3. NADPH- producing photo system  Electrons land in this photo system  Carries hydrogens 4. 2nd transport chain  Uses electron energy to make NADPH Part 2: Calvin Cycle("Synthesis" Reaction) 5. Fixation  Rubisco (mostabundant enzyme on planet) attaches CO to organic molecule 2  Gather 3 CO 2  Fix carbon 6. Sugar Creation  Organic molecule is modified into sugar via G3P  Use hydrogen to build sugar  Use a bunch of ATP & NADPH (hydrogen) 7. Regeneration  Some material that was used is modified into organic molecule  Convert back to starting molecule  Restore cycle back to starting point to restart cycle Topic #2: Proteins • Plants can make all the amino acids they need • Protein is a string of amino acids • Any amount of amino acids • Made of 20 amino acids • Function is determined by the sequence of amino acids Sub-Topic #1: Amino Acids Make Up • Carbon in the center • Hydrogen • Amino Group • Carboxyl Group • Side Chain  The most unique & important part  Each amino acid has a different side chain Sub-Topic #2: Structure • Primary  Most simple  The order of the amino acids  The order of the amino acids • Secondary  Backbone interact to make spirals or sheets  Can be extremelystrong • Tertiary  3D structure • Quaternary  When two or more bond together Sub-Topic #3: Storage • Our bodies do not store amino acids for longer than a day Example: Herbicide • Roundup disrupts the plant's synthesis of essential amino acids  Plant dies of malnutrition within a few weeks Topic #3: 2 Different Types of Plants • C3 Plants ○ Grows mostly in arid areas ○ Advantage: Energy efficient ○ Disadvantage:Water lost to evaporation in hot climates 12 13 ○ Quirk: Likes CO , 2oes not like CO 2 ○ Cycle: Regular Calvin cycle • C4 Plants ○ Have an extra step before Calvin cycle ○ Extra cycle is much more efficient than regular Calvin cycle ○ Stomata only needs to be opened a little ○ Advantage: water loss is minimized in warm climates ○ Disadvantage:requires more energy ○ Quirk: Takes CO & C2 13 2 Topic #4: High Fructose Corn Syrup • Corn is stripped of all of its nutrients to make it just sugar • Fructose is the sugar that occurs in fruit • Fruit release fructose only as cell walls are broken down • Our primitiveancestors evolved metabolismto handle slow release- low dose fructose • Our bodies cannot handle huge amounts of fructose hitting our body at once 1. Fructose bypasses cell metabolism & goes straight to liver 2. Liver gets overloaded 3. Liver goes into full panic mode ○ Just like alcoholism ○ Fat synthesis ○ Fat breakdown inhibition ○ Fat export inhibition • Problemswith high doses ○ Excess fructose is no longer processed in the liver ○ Fructose metabolism is broken down to uric acid ○ Excess fructose leads to excess fat production in the liver Life Science Wednesday, September 28, 2016 Week's Topic: Nutrition Important Points: Today's Topics: BMI is not meant to be applied to individuals BMI is completelyunreliable and nonsensical  BMI First time in history that life expectancy has  Obesity Trends in the US decreased between generations US is leading rising obesity trends worldwide  Calories  ProcessedFoods It is easier to extract nutrients from cooked & processed foods Agricultural food is much more likely to contain our nutritional needs Summary  BMI It is scientifically nonsensical, physiologicallywrong because it does not consider muscle mass or physical build, logically unsound, and lies by scientific authority. It was not meant to and should not apply to individuals.  High obesity and diabetes rates are correlated with lower life expectancy  Chemicals are used in food & industrial products as additives because processing foods strips it of most essential micronutrients Topic #1: BMI is Unreliable • Person who created it explicitly said that it could not and should not be used to indicate the level of fatness in an individual • It is scientifically nonsensical • It is physiologically wrong • Does not consider muscle mass • Does not consider physical build • It gets the logic wrong • It bad statistics • Takes an average of everyone • Does not apply to individuals • It lies by scientific authority • It suggests distinct categorieswith sharp boundaries that hinge on a decimal place • Makes the more cynical membersof society suspect that the medical insurance industry lobbies for the continued use of the BMI to keep their profits high • Larger BMI is charged more for health insurance • Because everyoneuses it, there is no pressure to find new measurements • It embarrassesthe US Topic #2: Obesity Trends in the US • Obesity & Diabetesreduce your life expectancy ○ First time life expectancy has gone down from the previous generations • Obesity in children has increased around 15% between 1990& 2008 • Obesity rates are increasing worldwide & US is leading this trend ○ US is 10% larger than next country, which is UK • High obesity and diabetes rates are correlated with lower life expectancy Topic #3: Calories • =Measurementof energy • It is easier for the body to extract nutrients from cooked & processed foods • More energy can be taken per ounce from a cookedhamburger than a raw steak • Our body can get at calories differently • Processedor cooked foods are easier to get to calories • Refined carbs ○ Taking things like corn & creating fructose sugar ○ Empty calories for sweetness ○ Do not feel full afterwards • Some foods deliver a lot fewer calories than they contain because we don’t chew them enough to fracture all the cell walls and release fats Topic #4: Processed Foods • High purified natural & synthetic ingredients ○ Processing food strips it of most essential micronutrients  Vitamins, minerals, and anti-oxidants • Chemicals are used in food & industrial products as additives • Making a food additive ○ Ferrous sulfate  Nutritional source of Iron  Extract sulfur from iron, convert to sulfuric iron, run steel through sulfuric acid to removerust, acid+rust = ferrous sulfate  Used in cement production, dyes & inks, nutritional supplement • Industrial food is synthetic (made from scratch) so it only contains what the producer puts in • Agricultural food is much more likely to contain our nutritional needs • Processedfood often does not have enough micronutrients


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