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Second half of chapter 3

by: Jesse Watkins

Second half of chapter 3 1013

Jesse Watkins

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About this Document

mix of class and personal notes
General Psychology
Rebecca Armstrong
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in General Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jesse Watkins on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1013 at Mississippi State University taught by Rebecca Armstrong in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 3: Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind III. Drugs and Consciousness A. Tolerance and Addiction Substance use disorder is continued craving and use despite significant life disruption or harm to one’s physical body. Psychoactive drugs are chemicals that change perceptions and moods. Acts on the nervous system (Neurochemistry) influences behavior. The effects vary based on the user of the drug, if a user expects big results then they are more than likely going to experience big results. When is Drug Use a Disorder? Diminished Control Uses more substance, or for longer, than intended Tries unsuccessfully to regulate use of substance. Spends much time acquiring, using or recovering from Craves the substance Diminished Social Functioning Use disrupts commitments at work, school, or home Continues use despite social problems Causes reduced social, recreational, and work activities Hazardous Use Continues use despite hazards Continues use despite worsening physical or psychological problems Drug Action Experiences tolerance Experiences withdrawal when attempting to end use. B. Types of Psychoactive Drugs 1. Depressants Calms the body’s systems. Slows neural activity and functioning. a. Alcohol Affects the Frontal lobe, and in low doses can actually seem like a stimulant when it suppresses the judgement and ethics of a given person. Disinhibitor. Expectancy effects Acting drunk because you think you have had alcohol. Slows the sympathetic nervous system’s activity. Can cause slurred speech and poor reaction time. Also can disrupt memory. Alcohol use Disorder can actually shrink the brain. Can impair the growth of synaptic connections, and is also known to cause one to blackout and not remember what happened. Reduced Self-Awareness and Self-Control leads to people zoning out and focusing on a stimulating event rather than something necessary. b. Barbiturates Are drugs that depress central nervous system activity, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement. AKA tranquilizers. Can be lethal with alcohol. c. Opiates When overused, the brain will no longer make its own endorphins. Opiates and other derivatives, can depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety. The lack of endorphins causes the addiction and withdrawals. 2. Stimulants Stimulants excite neural activity and speeds up body functions. Examples of bodily effects are, pupils dilating, heart and breathe rates increase, and blood sugar levels rise causing a drop in appetite, as well as energy and self-confidence rise. Amphetamines are drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes. Crashes from an amphetamine can be, fatigue, stomach aches, headaches, etc a. Nicotine Attacks the same part of the brain as cocaine. Causes euphoria 50% chance of death as a teen-to-grave smoker. 7 seconds for the nicotine to reach the brain. Dopamine and Opiods temporarily calm anxiety and reduce sensitivity to pain. Causes the body to release Epinephrine and Norepinephrine which diminish appetite and boost alertness and mental efficiency. Smoking correlates with depression, chronic disabilities, and divorce…I don’t see how that last one is caused by smoking but the book says so. b. Cocaine Offers a fast track from euphoria to crash. Can be snorted, injected, or smoked. Depletes the brains Dopamine, Serotonin, and Norepinephrine. Crash includes symptoms such as agitation and depression. Causes emotional disturbances, suspiciousness, convulsions, cardiac arrest, or respiratory failure. “Cheap and Lethal” c. Methamphetamine Chemically related to its parent drug Amphetamine, but with heightened effects. Triggers dopamine, which enhances energy and mood Its after effects include irritability, insomnia, hypertension, seizures, social isolation, depression, and occasional violent outbursts. Extended use can lead to, baseline dopamine levels, leaving the user with everlasting depression. d. Ecstasy Ecstasy is the street name for MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine) (AKA Molly) It is both hallucinogen and stimulant. Triggers dopamine, but the greatest effect is that it releases all the stored serotonin and blocks the reuptake, thus giving you the feel good flow. Experiences of emotional elevation. Causes dehydration, which combined with prolonged dancing can be lethal (that is probably one of the weirdest things I have ever read in a text book “drug+dancing=lethal”) Prolonged effects can include decreased output of serotonin, if the serotonin producing neurons are permanently damaged then it will cause permanent depression. 3. Hallucinogens Distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input. Cause similar effects as the near-death experience (an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death) a. LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide) Uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors. Biggest thing here is that it can cause euphoric experiences with vivid color and visions or it can quickly become a panic. b. Marijuana THC can cause mild hallucinations or cause anger….I don’t know that I’ve ever heard that but again the book says so. Takes a similar action to alcohol. It relaxes and disinhibits… now that is what I’ve heard. THC lingers in the body which means that it takes less the second time to get high because of the low levels already in the body. Marijuana interferes with memory recall, even to information learned just minutes before. Causes a greater risk of anxiety, depression, or addiction. Marijuana is known as a gateway drug. C. Influences on Drug Use Adolescents that occasionally use drugs are represented as thrill seeking. 1. Biological Influences Some people may be biologically vulnerable to particular drugs. Adopted individuals are more susceptible to alcohol use disorder if there is a history of it in one or both biological parents. Having an identical rather than fraternal twin with alcohol use disorder puts one t increased risk for alcohol problems. Boys who at age 6 are excitable, impulsive, and fearless are more likely as teens to smoke, drink, and use other drugs. Researchers have bred rats and mice that prefer alcoholic drinks to water. One such strain has reduced levels of the brain chemical NPY. Researchers have identified genes that are more common among people and animals predisposed to alcohol use disorder, and they are seeking genes that contribute to tobacco addiction. These culprit genes seemingly produce deficiencies in the brain’s natural dopamine reward system: While triggering temporary dopamine-produced pleasure, the addictive drugs disrupt normal dopamine balance. Studies of how drugs reprogram the brain’s reward systems raise hopes for anti-addiction drugs that might block or blunt the effects of alcohol and other drugs. 2. Psychological and Social-Cultural Influences A common psychological factor that has appeared in studies of youth and young adults is the feeling that life is meaningless and directionless, also, common among school dropouts without job skills, privilege, and with little hope. Main psychological influences are caused by failures in life and poor self-concept. Also, Peer influence is also a negative factor (or positive in the right context). Ways to prevent drug problems: Educate young people about the long-term costs of a drug’s temporary pleasures. Help young people find other ways to boost their self-esteem and purpose in life. Attempt to modify peer associations or to “inoculate” youths against peer pressures by training them in refusal skills. Facts About Higher Education College and university students drink more alcohol than their nonstudent peers and exhibit 2.5 times the general population’s rate of substance abuse. Fraternity and sorority members report nearly twice the binge-drinking rate of nonmembers. Since 1993, campus smoking rates have declined, alcohol use has been steady, and abuse of prescription opioids, stimulants, tranquilizers, and sedatives has increased, as has marijuana use.


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