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Psychology 2: Research in the Real World

by: Mikaela Notetaker

Psychology 2: Research in the Real World Psyc 2010-003

Marketplace > California State University Sacramento > Psychology (PSYC) > Psyc 2010-003 > Psychology 2 Research in the Real World
Mikaela Notetaker
Sac State

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About this Document

These notes help describe the modern and late psychological research methods that are not used in a traditional laboratory but in the real world.
PSYC 2 - Introductory Psychology
Dr. Harrison
Class Notes
Psychology, research, methods, real, world
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaela Notetaker on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at California State University Sacramento taught by Dr. Harrison in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see PSYC 2 - Introductory Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at California State University Sacramento.

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Date Created: 10/03/16
          Psychologic Research in the World    A. Laboratory experiment   a. Considered the “gold standard” in psychological research; it can determine the  causation (the how) in the cause­and­effect relationships  b. Unfortunately, this method can produce results that are limited in use when  determining real­world behaviour (It can e ​ xplain ​ hat can happen under carefully  isolated circumstances, but not what actually does happen outside the lab)  B. Designing a study  a. Challenges: finding the balance between i ​ nternal validity ​and ​external validity   i. Internal validity­ a study that results with inferences with one interpretation  (the lab)  ii. External validity­ a study that ensures findings apply to settings other than  the one being studied (the real­world)  b. Accomplishing a balance between these two are challenging because when  creating a controlled environment (where influential factors are controlled) it is  hard to discern whether the results are applicable to what people naturally  encounter in the real world  c. Scientists value internal validity more because it identifies relationships more  clearly compared to observations of real­world settings (are unreliable because of  many influential factors)  d. In order to make claims that apply to many populations and environments,  scientists bring together lab research (where participants are brought to the lab)  and field research (where the lab is brought to the participants).  i. This allows scientists to know how factors act under real­world settings  e. Ecological validity​­ refers to the effect that has been obtained from real­world  circumstances     C. Research Methods that Studies Daily Life: Through many decades, researchers were  able to discover methods that are able to measure abstract concepts (behaviour,  experience) and physiology in people’s daily lives. The following methods fulfill this  description:  a. Experience­sampling method: study everyday behaviour (interactions, feelings,  tasks, etc.); similar to like being a detective, psychologists can observe the  participants’ everyday behaviour by recording them through a portable camera  contained in an app on their smartphone (electronically activated recorder; EAR)  b. Ecological momentary assessment   c. Diary method  d. The goal for these methods is to collect close­to­the­moment data that directly  comes from examining individuals closely about in their daily lives; this is usually  done by researchers asking participants repeatedly about their emotions and  thoughts every day. From this researchers are able to obtain a sense of the  participants’ psychological behaviour.  e. Researchers also ask about the participants’ environment, location, associations  that day to get a sense of what the participant was going through and what  brought about their feelings and emotions.  f. The advancement of smartphones made it easier and more effective to collect  data daily from participants at a moment’s notice   g. This method became the golden standard for studying daily life and obtaining  data that can be generalized to real life and not to a controlled lab setting.  h. Day Reconstruction Method (DRM)­ a new method that allows participants to  record daily occurrences that happened in a day the next day (like a diary; you  record what happened to you yesterday); this reflective method allows  researchers and maybe the participants to reveal what moments the previous  day led to the participant feeling positive or negative about something.  i. Time lapse photography is used to observe the daily flow of people  j. Looking through garbage can help assist what participants actually consume  (cigarettes, alcohol, etc.)    D. Studying Daily Life Physiology  a. Researchers are curious as to how we physically respond to situations in our  daily lives (situations that make our blood boil or make us sad, etc.)  b. White coat hypertension­ the situation where participants’ physical reaction may  be different in the lab compared to the real world; ex. a participant has a high  blood pressure at the doctor’s office compared to having a lower one at home  c. Ambulatory physiological monitoring­ monitoring what people physically react to  in their daily lives; researchers use the electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure,  electrodermal activity (sweat response), body temperature, and the ambulatory  assessment of hormones to monitor the physical response of people.    E. Studying Online Behaviour  a. Researchers are curious as to how people behave and interact on the internet.  b. Researchers discover that the way people use words on the internet can reveal a  lot of psychology about them; this is studying virtual language behaviour  c. Using modern text analysis programs, researchers can analyze viral  communication (linguistic analysis)  d. Smartphones will be the future for psychology considering these devices can  collect data and communicate easier with participants (the challenges to this is  privacy protection in smartphones)      F. Full­Cycle Psychology  1. Researchers observe natural occurrences in order to determine how a certain effect can  react in the real world  2. Use theory to understand why the effect acts that certain way in the real world  3. Experiment this effect in the real world  4. Return to natural environment to confirm findings  


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