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Fat Soluble Vitamins

by: Alise Robison

Fat Soluble Vitamins 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001

Alise Robison
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About this Document

Complete notes of fat soluble vitamins
Introduction to Principles of Human Nutrition
Deborah Ann Hutcheon
Class Notes
Fat Soluble Vitamins, Vitamins, a, d, e, k




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alise Robison on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Deborah Ann Hutcheon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 114 views.

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Date Created: 10/03/16
Fat Soluble Vitamins  Greater risk of toxicity—storage in liver and body fat  Insoluble in water—need fat medium  Require bile & fat for digestion—requires fat intake  Vitamins A D E K  Antioxidants A C E Vitamin A  Key Functions o Vision—night vision and cells of the eye o Skin health o Immune support o Antioxidant o Reproductive health  Dietary Forms o Retinoids (active vitamin A)  Retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, retinyl ester) o Carotenoids:: provitamin A (has to be converted to retinoid to be active)  Beta-carotene: most abundant and greatest activity  Alpha-carotene  Beta-cryptoxanthin  Non-provitamin A: lycopene (cardiovascular health), lutein (egg yolks—eye health), zeaxanthin  Food Source o Retinoids: foods of animal origin o Carotenoids: red, orange, yellow, green produce  Deficiency o Night blindness and skin keratinization  Toxicity: problem with active vitamin A o Beta-carotene: yellowing of skin—not toxic o Active Vitamin A: birth defects (toxic) Vitamin D Forms  Cholecalciferol o Vitamin D3 found in animal products—skin of animals  Ergocalciferol o Fortified vitamin D2 o Plant form of vitamin D found in mushrooms  Calcidiol o Becomes calcidiol in liver  Calcitriol o Active form that functions and works in the body o Passed through liver AND kidney  Key Functions o Bone growth: regulates blood calcium concentration  Stimulates the absorption of calcium into the small intestine  Increases calcium resorption by kidneys  Stimulates calcium release from bone o Down-regulation of body processes  Immune system—autoimmune disorders (its an anti- inflammatory)  Lower blood pressure  Stimulates insulin secretion  Cancer prevention  Sources: sun, dairy, fortified foods, fatty fish, mushrooms o Key component for synthesis from sun exposure: cholesterol  A steroid hormone: needs cholesterol for synthesis  Vitamin D intake o Dietary (food and/or supplements)  Adult RDA (18-50) = 600 IU  Older adult RDA (>51) = 800 IU  Need more bc skin cells, less dairy consumption  Adult UL = 4000 IU, appears safe up to 10,000 IU o 30 min in sunshine provides adequate amount  consider risk of skin cancer—wear sunscreen  Skin coloration: dark vs. light skin  Darker skin doesn't synthesize as easily  Earth’s latitude/season  Lower blood levels during winter months and in northern states  Typical industrialized lifestyle  Indoor jobs  Deficiency o Vitamin D deficiency leads to a calcium deficiency o Bone disorders  Rickets: young children cannot properly develop bones & may lead to bowed legs  Osteomalacia: older children have softened weakened bone structure  Osteoporosis: no bone structure/support & can easily break (like toothpicks) Vitamin E  Food Sources: o MUFA and PUFA food sources o Plant based oil products, bran and wheat germ, leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds o Can be oxidized with exposure to air, light, heat  Key Functions o Antioxidant (maintain cell membrane integrity) o Reduce cholesterol metabolism o Suppression of tumor growth and cell proliferation o Anticoagulant (reduce platelet aggregation)  Most biologically active form is alpha-tocopherol  Deficiency o Rupture of RBCs (cell membrane damage)  Toxicity o Bleeding (hemorrhage) o UL = 1000 mg/day o Discontinue supplement intake before elective surgery (surgery that you know of in advance) Vitamin K  Key Function o Blood coagulation (clotting) o In liver, helps produce 4 vitamin K-dependent clotting factors o Fibrin (a solid clot) made up of fiber from fabric that helps clot lol o Bone formation: synthesis of bone proteins o Produces fabrics so to speak  Sources o Green leafy vegetables like spinach, kale, broccoli, brussels sprouts o Can be synthesized by bacteria in GI tract  Babes get an injection bc sum bout their birth  Forms o K1 Phylloquinones: synthesized by green plants o K2 Menaquinones: synthesized by bacteria o K3 Menadiones: synthetic form (supplements)  Deficiency o Bleeding (hemophilia)  Toxicity o Excessive clotting  Clinical application (Coumadin—warfarin) o Medication prescribed to CVA patients—reduce clotting o Key: consistent vitamin K intake


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