Fat Soluble Vitamins
Fat Soluble Vitamins 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001
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86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alise Robison on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Deborah Ann Hutcheon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 114 views.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Fat Soluble Vitamins Greater risk of toxicity—storage in liver and body fat Insoluble in water—need fat medium Require bile & fat for digestion—requires fat intake Vitamins A D E K Antioxidants A C E Vitamin A Key Functions o Vision—night vision and cells of the eye o Skin health o Immune support o Antioxidant o Reproductive health Dietary Forms o Retinoids (active vitamin A) Retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, retinyl ester) o Carotenoids:: provitamin A (has to be converted to retinoid to be active) Beta-carotene: most abundant and greatest activity Alpha-carotene Beta-cryptoxanthin Non-provitamin A: lycopene (cardiovascular health), lutein (egg yolks—eye health), zeaxanthin Food Source o Retinoids: foods of animal origin o Carotenoids: red, orange, yellow, green produce Deficiency o Night blindness and skin keratinization Toxicity: problem with active vitamin A o Beta-carotene: yellowing of skin—not toxic o Active Vitamin A: birth defects (toxic) Vitamin D Forms Cholecalciferol o Vitamin D3 found in animal products—skin of animals Ergocalciferol o Fortified vitamin D2 o Plant form of vitamin D found in mushrooms Calcidiol o Becomes calcidiol in liver Calcitriol o Active form that functions and works in the body o Passed through liver AND kidney Key Functions o Bone growth: regulates blood calcium concentration Stimulates the absorption of calcium into the small intestine Increases calcium resorption by kidneys Stimulates calcium release from bone o Down-regulation of body processes Immune system—autoimmune disorders (its an anti- inflammatory) Lower blood pressure Stimulates insulin secretion Cancer prevention Sources: sun, dairy, fortified foods, fatty fish, mushrooms o Key component for synthesis from sun exposure: cholesterol A steroid hormone: needs cholesterol for synthesis Vitamin D intake o Dietary (food and/or supplements) Adult RDA (18-50) = 600 IU Older adult RDA (>51) = 800 IU Need more bc skin cells, less dairy consumption Adult UL = 4000 IU, appears safe up to 10,000 IU o 30 min in sunshine provides adequate amount consider risk of skin cancer—wear sunscreen Skin coloration: dark vs. light skin Darker skin doesn't synthesize as easily Earth’s latitude/season Lower blood levels during winter months and in northern states Typical industrialized lifestyle Indoor jobs Deficiency o Vitamin D deficiency leads to a calcium deficiency o Bone disorders Rickets: young children cannot properly develop bones & may lead to bowed legs Osteomalacia: older children have softened weakened bone structure Osteoporosis: no bone structure/support & can easily break (like toothpicks) Vitamin E Food Sources: o MUFA and PUFA food sources o Plant based oil products, bran and wheat germ, leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds o Can be oxidized with exposure to air, light, heat Key Functions o Antioxidant (maintain cell membrane integrity) o Reduce cholesterol metabolism o Suppression of tumor growth and cell proliferation o Anticoagulant (reduce platelet aggregation) Most biologically active form is alpha-tocopherol Deficiency o Rupture of RBCs (cell membrane damage) Toxicity o Bleeding (hemorrhage) o UL = 1000 mg/day o Discontinue supplement intake before elective surgery (surgery that you know of in advance) Vitamin K Key Function o Blood coagulation (clotting) o In liver, helps produce 4 vitamin K-dependent clotting factors o Fibrin (a solid clot) made up of fiber from fabric that helps clot lol o Bone formation: synthesis of bone proteins o Produces fabrics so to speak Sources o Green leafy vegetables like spinach, kale, broccoli, brussels sprouts o Can be synthesized by bacteria in GI tract Babes get an injection bc sum bout their birth Forms o K1 Phylloquinones: synthesized by green plants o K2 Menaquinones: synthesized by bacteria o K3 Menadiones: synthetic form (supplements) Deficiency o Bleeding (hemophilia) Toxicity o Excessive clotting Clinical application (Coumadin—warfarin) o Medication prescribed to CVA patients—reduce clotting o Key: consistent vitamin K intake
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