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Water Soluble Vitamins

by: Alise Robison

Water Soluble Vitamins 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001

Alise Robison

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Complete notes for water soluble vitamins, including learning catalytics and book notes
Introduction to Principles of Human Nutrition
Deborah Ann Hutcheon
Class Notes
Water, soluble, Vitamins, Vitamin, b
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alise Robison on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Deborah Ann Hutcheon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.

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Date Created: 10/03/16
Water Soluble Vitamins Metabolic Function Vitamins that Play a Role Antioxidants A, C, E, beta-carotene Blood clotting and RBC synthesis Folate, B6, B12 K Bone health Vitamin A D K C Energy production Biotin, niacin (B3), pantothenic acid, riboflavin (B2), thiamin (1 ), B 6 B12 Growth and reproduction Vitamin A, D Immune function A C D Protein metabolism and synthesis Folate, B6, B12, C Vegetables Fruits Grains Protein Dairy Folate Folate Folic Acid Niacin Riboflavin Vitamin A Vitamin C Niacin Thiamin Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin A Vitamin B 6 Vitamin B 6 Vitamin B 12 Vitamin E Vitamin B 12 Vitamin B 12 Vitamin D (if fortified) Vitamin K Riboflavin Thiamin Introduction to Vitamins  Vitamine: amines that are “vital for life” o Essential to the human diet, even in small amounts o Deficiency attributed to chronic conditions  Structure: individual units that do NOT yield energy o Solubility differs o Water-soluble: dissolvable in water; found in foods high in water  Animal-based, and plant-based; fruits, vegetables, meat, grains  B complex of vitamins; Vitamin C, 8 different vitamins o Fat-soluble: nuts, seeds, oils, animal fat (butter)  Vitamins D E K A  B Vitamins: help produce energy  Organic: can be destroyed by light, heat, oxygen, pH changes o Take care when cooking—don't overcook  Function: support/regulate body functions and processes, often by assisting enzymatic pathways  Bioavailability: amount absorbed by the body  Pro-Vitamins: inactive forms converted to active form in the body  Storage: liver and fat o Water-soluble vitamins don't have long-term reserves o Fat-soluble more easily stored—deficiencies more rare o Vitamin B 12stored well  Toxicity: can occur, especially from dietary supplements o Greater risk with fat-soluble than water-soluble o Most water-soluble vitamins don't have an upper level o Rare when eating regular, balanced diet o Happens when people supplement The B Vitamins—B Complex Primary Role: coenzymes in energy metabolism  Must be present to activate enzymes so functions can occur  Also, support RBC formation (B6, B12, Folate, and the mineral iron) o Microcytic anemia: (small cell) deficiency in B6—small RBC that cannot successfully transport oxygen throughout the body o Macrocytic anemia: (big cell) deficiency in B12 and Folate—bigger RBC cannot properly transport oxygen or nutrients Common Source: whole grain products (except B12)  B12 only naturally found in animal products  Added to refined grains o Enrichment: food product naturally contained that nutrient  Slice of whole wheat bread  Endosperm: starch and protein  Germ: Vitamin E, iron  Bran: insoluble fiber  Nutrient naturally present, removed by processing, then some added back in o Fortification: nutrient NOT naturally present in food  Orange juice  Oranges don't naturally contain calcium or Vitamin D, but orange juice has it added Thiamin (Vitamin B1)  Key Function: Carbohydrate metabolism  Food Sources: whole and enriched grains, chicken, pork products, legumes—dry beans  Deficiency o Beriberi: weakness, tiredness, foggy/fuzzy headed  Cells cant break down carbs for energy—even brain cells  Elderly and congestive heart failure (body shifts to use carbohydrates instead of fat for heart cells, using thiamin)  Patients with gastric bypass surgery  Weakness, wasting, edema, fatigue  Low intake/absorption and high requirements o Wernicke’s Encephalopathy  Cells of the brain start to die  Pregnant woman with prolonged morning sickness  Alcoholism and malnutrition (fasting, anorexia)  Alcoholism uses up thiamin, but don't consume enough  Low intake/absorption and high requirements  Brain cells affected: memory loss, confabulation (making up information)  Eye movements, muscle impairment, amnesia, psychosis  Korsakoff Syndrome: when this becomes permanent Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)  Key Function: macronutrient metabolism o Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD)  Physical Features: yellow coloration o Degraded by sunlight but heat-stable  Foods: milk and yogurt, eggs, green leafy vegetables, whole/enriched/fortified grains  Deficiency: ariboflavinosis and oral abnormalities o Can be detected by sores within and around ones mouth o Smooth and swollen tongue Niacin (Vitamin B3)  Body can produce from amino acid Tryptophan  Key Function: macronutrient and alcohol metabolism o Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD)  Sources: o More bioavailable: meat, poultry, seafood o Less bioavailable: legumes, grains (whole, enriched, fortified) o Synthesized in liver from AA tryptophan  Used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia o Benefits: lowers total cholesterol, TAG, and LDL o Increases HDL o Side effects: vasodilation (flushing), liver toxicity  Deficiency: Pellagra: 4 D’s o Diarrhea o Dermatitis—scaly skin o Dementia o Death  Toxicity: liver damage, nausea/vomiting *NO Vitamin B4 Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)  Key Function: macronutrient metabolism  Source: found in virtually ALL food—plants and animals Biotin  Key Function: macronutrient metabolism, fat synthesis, glycogenesis (help store glucose as glycogen for immediate source), AA (amino acid) metabolism  Sources: cooked eggs, peanuts, whole grains, fish o Bound to protein in food—cleaved by biotinidase o Raw egg whites—avidin binds biotin (deficiency results) o Body can produce in large intestine by GI bacteria  Deficiency: lethargy, hair loss, neurological impairment  Helps with fingernail strength, does not help grow hair if biotin deficiency is not the cause of hair loss Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)  Key Function: protein (amino acid) metabolism o Pyridoxal Phosphate (PLP)  Sources: meat, poultry, seafood, grains, legumes, nuts  Deficiency: microcytic anemia o Small red blood cells o Also caused by deficiency in iron o Lowers production of neurotransmitters; depression and confusion o Occurs with alcoholism: alcohol destroys enzymes  Therapeutic use: morning sickness (50mg/day)  Toxicity: nerve damage (UL: 100mg/day) Folate (Vitamin B9)  Key Function: amino acid, DNA, RNA Synthesis o Role in single-carbon transfers  Folic Acid: man-made version of the B Vitamins o Used to fortify food products o Used in dietary supplements  One of few occasions that dietary supplement IS beneficial o 100% bioavailable  Food Sources: green leafy vegetables, fruit, legumes, fortified grains (folic acid)  Deficiency: o Macrocytic Anemia  Red blood cells cannot replicate properly to get healthy RBC, they are too large  Also caused by deficiency in B12 o Neural Tube and other Birth Defects  Begin consumption PRIOR to pregnancy (400micrograms)  Pregnant women: 600 mcg/day  FDA mandate (1998): fortified cereal-grain products  Cleft lip, encephala (brain defect), heart problems Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)  ONLY vitamin that body can store in liver  Key Functions o Coenzyme for activation of Folate (methyl receptor) AA, DNA, RNA synthesis o Coenzyme for conversion of homocysteine to methionine (methyl donor)DNA synthesis o Hemoglobin synthesis for RBC formation  Food Sources: animal products, fortified foods  Digestion and Absorption o Stomach: release from proteins by pepsin and HCL (helps break bond) o Binds to R protein in mouth and stomach (produced in salivary glands and stomach—helps bind B12 as it goes through digestive tract to SI) o Duodenum: hydrolyzed form R protein by proteases o Free B12 binds to intrinsic factor (IF) o B12 + IF absorbed in distal ileum o In enterocyte, B12 released from IF o B12 ALWAYS NEEDS A PROTEIN BUDDY TO BE DIGESTED/ABSORBED  Deficiency o Macrocytic Anemia (Pernicious Anemia)  Strict vegan diet  Gastric bypass or vertical sleeve gastrectomy  Achlorhydria (H2-blockers & proton pump inhibitors)  Stomach or small intestine disease or injury  ALL pernicious anemia result in macrocytic anemia, but NOT vice versa o Preventing deficiency  Intake of fortified food sources if vegan  Monthly intramuscular (IM) injections  Sublingual or nasal supplements Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid/Ascorbate)  High doses of vitamin C per day will not prevent illness, but it will shorten the duration of the sickness  Key Functions o Antioxidant—helps prevent free-radical damage to cells from pollutants, chemicals, oxidative damage (aging) o Collagen Synthesis—important for skin, hair, joints  Connects things throughout the body o Helps absorb non-heme iron  Nuts, legumes, fruits, leafy vegetables  Heme iron from animals  Non-heme from plants—no blood  Food Sources o Citrus fruit, broccoli, tomatoes, green bell peppers, potatoes  RDA o Men: 90mg/day o Women: 75mg/day o Increased needs with smoking because of oxidative damage that occurs  Benefit for colds: not proven to prevent/treat, may help reduce the duration if taken at first sign of onset  Deficiency: scurvy o Breakdown of collagen o Hair falls out, teeth fall out, joints are all askew so they wont rly work o Hemorrhaging looks like pinpricks I guess apparently its rupture of blood vessels o LOL pirates have little teeth bc no vitamin C !! o Not rly common except in 3 world countries  Toxicity: osmotic diarrhea  UL 2 grams/day


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