Water Soluble Vitamins
Water Soluble Vitamins 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alise Robison on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Deborah Ann Hutcheon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Water Soluble Vitamins Metabolic Function Vitamins that Play a Role Antioxidants A, C, E, beta-carotene Blood clotting and RBC synthesis Folate, B6, B12 K Bone health Vitamin A D K C Energy production Biotin, niacin (B3), pantothenic acid, riboflavin (B2), thiamin (1 ), B 6 B12 Growth and reproduction Vitamin A, D Immune function A C D Protein metabolism and synthesis Folate, B6, B12, C Vegetables Fruits Grains Protein Dairy Folate Folate Folic Acid Niacin Riboflavin Vitamin A Vitamin C Niacin Thiamin Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin A Vitamin B 6 Vitamin B 6 Vitamin B 12 Vitamin E Vitamin B 12 Vitamin B 12 Vitamin D (if fortified) Vitamin K Riboflavin Thiamin Introduction to Vitamins Vitamine: amines that are “vital for life” o Essential to the human diet, even in small amounts o Deficiency attributed to chronic conditions Structure: individual units that do NOT yield energy o Solubility differs o Water-soluble: dissolvable in water; found in foods high in water Animal-based, and plant-based; fruits, vegetables, meat, grains B complex of vitamins; Vitamin C, 8 different vitamins o Fat-soluble: nuts, seeds, oils, animal fat (butter) Vitamins D E K A B Vitamins: help produce energy Organic: can be destroyed by light, heat, oxygen, pH changes o Take care when cooking—don't overcook Function: support/regulate body functions and processes, often by assisting enzymatic pathways Bioavailability: amount absorbed by the body Pro-Vitamins: inactive forms converted to active form in the body Storage: liver and fat o Water-soluble vitamins don't have long-term reserves o Fat-soluble more easily stored—deficiencies more rare o Vitamin B 12stored well Toxicity: can occur, especially from dietary supplements o Greater risk with fat-soluble than water-soluble o Most water-soluble vitamins don't have an upper level o Rare when eating regular, balanced diet o Happens when people supplement The B Vitamins—B Complex Primary Role: coenzymes in energy metabolism Must be present to activate enzymes so functions can occur Also, support RBC formation (B6, B12, Folate, and the mineral iron) o Microcytic anemia: (small cell) deficiency in B6—small RBC that cannot successfully transport oxygen throughout the body o Macrocytic anemia: (big cell) deficiency in B12 and Folate—bigger RBC cannot properly transport oxygen or nutrients Common Source: whole grain products (except B12) B12 only naturally found in animal products Added to refined grains o Enrichment: food product naturally contained that nutrient Slice of whole wheat bread Endosperm: starch and protein Germ: Vitamin E, iron Bran: insoluble fiber Nutrient naturally present, removed by processing, then some added back in o Fortification: nutrient NOT naturally present in food Orange juice Oranges don't naturally contain calcium or Vitamin D, but orange juice has it added Thiamin (Vitamin B1) Key Function: Carbohydrate metabolism Food Sources: whole and enriched grains, chicken, pork products, legumes—dry beans Deficiency o Beriberi: weakness, tiredness, foggy/fuzzy headed Cells cant break down carbs for energy—even brain cells Elderly and congestive heart failure (body shifts to use carbohydrates instead of fat for heart cells, using thiamin) Patients with gastric bypass surgery Weakness, wasting, edema, fatigue Low intake/absorption and high requirements o Wernicke’s Encephalopathy Cells of the brain start to die Pregnant woman with prolonged morning sickness Alcoholism and malnutrition (fasting, anorexia) Alcoholism uses up thiamin, but don't consume enough Low intake/absorption and high requirements Brain cells affected: memory loss, confabulation (making up information) Eye movements, muscle impairment, amnesia, psychosis Korsakoff Syndrome: when this becomes permanent Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Key Function: macronutrient metabolism o Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) Physical Features: yellow coloration o Degraded by sunlight but heat-stable Foods: milk and yogurt, eggs, green leafy vegetables, whole/enriched/fortified grains Deficiency: ariboflavinosis and oral abnormalities o Can be detected by sores within and around ones mouth o Smooth and swollen tongue Niacin (Vitamin B3) Body can produce from amino acid Tryptophan Key Function: macronutrient and alcohol metabolism o Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) Sources: o More bioavailable: meat, poultry, seafood o Less bioavailable: legumes, grains (whole, enriched, fortified) o Synthesized in liver from AA tryptophan Used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia o Benefits: lowers total cholesterol, TAG, and LDL o Increases HDL o Side effects: vasodilation (flushing), liver toxicity Deficiency: Pellagra: 4 D’s o Diarrhea o Dermatitis—scaly skin o Dementia o Death Toxicity: liver damage, nausea/vomiting *NO Vitamin B4 Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) Key Function: macronutrient metabolism Source: found in virtually ALL food—plants and animals Biotin Key Function: macronutrient metabolism, fat synthesis, glycogenesis (help store glucose as glycogen for immediate source), AA (amino acid) metabolism Sources: cooked eggs, peanuts, whole grains, fish o Bound to protein in food—cleaved by biotinidase o Raw egg whites—avidin binds biotin (deficiency results) o Body can produce in large intestine by GI bacteria Deficiency: lethargy, hair loss, neurological impairment Helps with fingernail strength, does not help grow hair if biotin deficiency is not the cause of hair loss Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) Key Function: protein (amino acid) metabolism o Pyridoxal Phosphate (PLP) Sources: meat, poultry, seafood, grains, legumes, nuts Deficiency: microcytic anemia o Small red blood cells o Also caused by deficiency in iron o Lowers production of neurotransmitters; depression and confusion o Occurs with alcoholism: alcohol destroys enzymes Therapeutic use: morning sickness (50mg/day) Toxicity: nerve damage (UL: 100mg/day) Folate (Vitamin B9) Key Function: amino acid, DNA, RNA Synthesis o Role in single-carbon transfers Folic Acid: man-made version of the B Vitamins o Used to fortify food products o Used in dietary supplements One of few occasions that dietary supplement IS beneficial o 100% bioavailable Food Sources: green leafy vegetables, fruit, legumes, fortified grains (folic acid) Deficiency: o Macrocytic Anemia Red blood cells cannot replicate properly to get healthy RBC, they are too large Also caused by deficiency in B12 o Neural Tube and other Birth Defects Begin consumption PRIOR to pregnancy (400micrograms) Pregnant women: 600 mcg/day FDA mandate (1998): fortified cereal-grain products Cleft lip, encephala (brain defect), heart problems Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) ONLY vitamin that body can store in liver Key Functions o Coenzyme for activation of Folate (methyl receptor) AA, DNA, RNA synthesis o Coenzyme for conversion of homocysteine to methionine (methyl donor)DNA synthesis o Hemoglobin synthesis for RBC formation Food Sources: animal products, fortified foods Digestion and Absorption o Stomach: release from proteins by pepsin and HCL (helps break bond) o Binds to R protein in mouth and stomach (produced in salivary glands and stomach—helps bind B12 as it goes through digestive tract to SI) o Duodenum: hydrolyzed form R protein by proteases o Free B12 binds to intrinsic factor (IF) o B12 + IF absorbed in distal ileum o In enterocyte, B12 released from IF o B12 ALWAYS NEEDS A PROTEIN BUDDY TO BE DIGESTED/ABSORBED Deficiency o Macrocytic Anemia (Pernicious Anemia) Strict vegan diet Gastric bypass or vertical sleeve gastrectomy Achlorhydria (H2-blockers & proton pump inhibitors) Stomach or small intestine disease or injury ALL pernicious anemia result in macrocytic anemia, but NOT vice versa o Preventing deficiency Intake of fortified food sources if vegan Monthly intramuscular (IM) injections Sublingual or nasal supplements Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid/Ascorbate) High doses of vitamin C per day will not prevent illness, but it will shorten the duration of the sickness Key Functions o Antioxidant—helps prevent free-radical damage to cells from pollutants, chemicals, oxidative damage (aging) o Collagen Synthesis—important for skin, hair, joints Connects things throughout the body o Helps absorb non-heme iron Nuts, legumes, fruits, leafy vegetables Heme iron from animals Non-heme from plants—no blood Food Sources o Citrus fruit, broccoli, tomatoes, green bell peppers, potatoes RDA o Men: 90mg/day o Women: 75mg/day o Increased needs with smoking because of oxidative damage that occurs Benefit for colds: not proven to prevent/treat, may help reduce the duration if taken at first sign of onset Deficiency: scurvy o Breakdown of collagen o Hair falls out, teeth fall out, joints are all askew so they wont rly work o Hemorrhaging looks like pinpricks I guess apparently its rupture of blood vessels o LOL pirates have little teeth bc no vitamin C !! o Not rly common except in 3 world countries Toxicity: osmotic diarrhea UL 2 grams/day