MBI 131: The week of exam notes on Monday.
MBI 131: The week of exam notes on Monday. MBI 131
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Jones on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MBI 131 at Miami University Hamilton taught by Ashley Driver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Community Health Perspectives - MBI 131 in Microbiology at Miami University Hamilton.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Environments ● They are external conditions/stimuli that influence development of disease. ● Environments factors are difficult to establish-people change environments Environmental Health: Study or management of how environmental conditions can affect our health. Natural Environments ● Landforms ○ Mountains, valleys ● Bodies of Water ○ Oceans, bays, rivers, mangroves ● Climate ○ Tropical, Tundra, continental ○ Ex: Wisconsin= injury to blizzard ○ California=wild fires ● Ecosystem issues: ○ Plants ○ Animals ○ Insects Built Environments ● Urban vs. real ● Housing quality ● Business and Industries ● Infrastructure: healthcare facilities, roads, water & sewage treatment plants, grocery stores Occupational Environments ( places where you work can cause disease or injury) Examples: ● Hospitals( doctors are exposed to different diseases, patients can get sick due to the environment) ● Farming- Machinery accidents ● Trucking/ driving cabs- deprived sleep, lack of exercise-cramps, Socioeconomic Environments Factors that lead to this: ● Diet= cannot afford fresh foods ● Housing & Living Conditions= (suburb vs. rural vs city) ● Healthcare=medical insurance= cancer treatments are expensive and the insurance will only over close to $100,000. Historical Highlights of Community Health in Western Civilization Ancient societies were very concerned with well-being. Archeological evidence supports that communities had restrooms, sewers, etc. Ancient Societies ● Code of Hammurabi ○ Provided laws for physician and health practices ■ Hammurabi Code: “Rates set for general surgery, eye surgery, setting fractures, curing diseased muscles and other specific health care services”. ● Book of Leviticus ○ Had instruction for personal hygiene, diet, sanitation and the isolation of people who suffer Leprosy. 1st Society Classical Greece ● Individual cleanliness, exercise, and strength were emphasises. ● Discarded the ideas of supernatural forces casing diseases. Used a logical approach. ○ Hippocrates:Father of Medicine ■ Though that sickness was the imbalances of 4 humors: ● Phylm ● Yellow bile ● Black bile ● Blood ○ Fevers were caused by too much blood. Treatment= bloodletting The Roman Empire ● Government made it mandatory to make public health measures: ○ Building codes ○ Drains/sewers ○ Public baths ○ aqueducts(supplies clean water to cities) ○ Education for physicians The Collapse of the Roman Empire Results: ● Disease was the biggest reason to the collapse of Roman Empire ○ 500 years of malaria outbreak in Rome ○ Weaken population and killed at least 100 million people ● Thought process: People lost faith in medicine and thought they were being punished for a sins. ○ Turned to spiritual belief Dark Ages( 476-1000 AD) ● Disease is seens as a punishment ○ Diseases were demons. ● Body Hygiene ○ People did not care about body hygiene. No bathing, dirty clothes, no washing hands ○ To cover up smell they used perfume ● Spoiled Food/famine ○ Food-bourne diseases ○ Poor nutrition ● Medieval Period ○ Black Death ○ Prevention of or treatment of diseases were unknown ○ Disease as punishment still a prevalent idea Black Death( Mid-1300s) ● (¼-½ of Europeans Die) Renaissance(1453-1600) ● Spirit of inquiry became common ○ Doctors began to study diseases and understand symptoms of certain diseases ● Diseases were spread thanks to increased travel ● 3 important community health concepts from syphilis: ○ Certain diseases can be treatable. ■ Syphilis can be treated by using quicksilver. ○ Certain diseases can result from particular behaviors. ■ Syphilis can be caused by having sex. ○ Certain diseases can be prevented. ■ The overcoat( condom) was created. Colonial Period (1600-1800) ● Smallbox was a major killer. ● Killed several kings and queens. ● It spread thanks to European explorers ○ Killed 50% of Aztecs, killed native people Scientific Contributions to Community Health: 1600-1800 Bernardo Ramazzini( late 1600s) Interested in relationship of work to health ● Where you work/job can result in diseases/organ damage ● Came up with ideas for prevention to workplace injury ○ Ventilation ○ Eye protection James Lind(mid 1700)-Nutrition and Health Found the relationship between food and diseases ● Found that scurvy was caused due to lack of Vitamin C. ● Scurvy became the first preventable disease. Edward Jenner (late 1700s) First Vaccination to prevent disease. ● Material from a lesion from smallpox lead to immunity of getting smallpox. ● Found that milkmaids had cowpox were immune to smallpox. ● Skin inoculation made people less immune to smallpox ● Smallpox finally became eradicated by 1977. Beginning of Modern Era(mid-1800-1900) ● Miasmas( vapors, or bad air) Development of Germ Theory of Disease ● Microbes cause contagious disease. Ignaz Semmelweis (1840s) ● Required that doctors wash hands in chlorine solution. ● Prevents spread of disease. ● Realized that from patient to patient they would suffer childbed fever. ● Results went from 50% to 1% John Snow(1850s) ● Cholera killed many people in London ● Severe epidemics in London and other cities ● Found that people who got water from Broad Street were the most affected. ● Removed the pump handle and Cholera went away, Joseph Lister(1860’s) ● Used a chemical to clean surgical dressings and instruments to control infections. ● Cleanliness could control disease finally accepted by doctors. Louis Pasteur (1860s-1880s) ● Microbes can come from the air. ● They are linked to food spoilage ● Pasteurization- can demonstrate that heat can kill microbes ● Against Spontaneous Generation Hypothesis ● Microbes too weak to cause disease generated immunity Robert Koch(1870-1900s) ● Proposed Koch’s Postulates for determining causes of infectious disease ● Discovered bacterial causes for tuberculosis and cholera ● Microbes can contaminate The Great Sanitary Movement (1850-1890s) ● Diseases can prevented if filth was removed. ○ Human and Animal Waste ● Realized there is a biological agent that caused cholera. ● Massachusetts Board of Health founded as country’s first State Health Dept. Since 1900 ● Discoveries laid groundwork for rational,scientific approach to disease treatment and prevention ● Life Expectancy increases from 47 1900 to 77 in 2000 ● Tremendous progress in past 110+ years ○ Sanitation ○ Personal hygiene ○ Discover antimicrobial drugs to treat and cure infectious diseases ○ Develop drugs and medical procedures to treat and cure non-infectious diseases ○ Better care for pregnant women & newborns ○ contraceptives/ability to control family size ○ Understanding disease on cellular/ molecular level ●
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