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Music: Organized Sound (Ch1)

by: Lourdes "Lulu"

Music: Organized Sound (Ch1) MUL 2010

Marketplace > Florida Atlantic University > MUL 2010 > Music Organized Sound Ch1
Lourdes "Lulu"

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About this Document

Notes taken during History and Appreciation of Music. The basis of music
History & Appreciation of Music
Kristina Timofeeva
Class Notes
Music, Music History, Musicappreciation, MUL2010
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lourdes "Lulu" on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUL 2010 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Kristina Timofeeva in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
History and Appreciation of Music Lecture notes Ch.1 Aug 22nd Music: Organized Sound  Music is Central to human existence.  All Human culture that ever existed in History all have music  It is like a need to express beyond words o When people suffer in sorrow, they turn to music  Singing is one form If music is so universally understood, why do we study it?  People tend to turn away from Music they do not know, what they are not familiar with.  Goal is to expose you to new experience  Western Art is a treasure because all this time there have been people who discovered it for themselves, it is time it is shown to others and carried on Aug 24 th What is music?  Organized sound o Sound is a vibration 4 qualities of a single musical sound  Pitch o Sustained vibration = Pitch o Determined by the frequency of vibration  Faster – faster  Slower – lower  Duration o Length of a note  Short or long notes  Electronic sound can last forever but you can’t communicate with that so it is no good for music  Intensity o Loudness of a sound  Factors  Environment o Room o Heat o Humidity  Timbre o Quality of the sound o When you hear different kinds of instruments that are a playing the same notes as the others, that is timbre  Because of different Materials the sound, sounds different Notation: Pitch  The Staff in Treble Clef (G-clef) o 5 parallel lines  Notes placed on lines and spaces in the staff  Higher the note= Higher the pitch o You can add lines to the staff = Ledger lines  The Staff in Bass Clef (F-clef) o 5 parallel lines  Notes placed on lines and spaces in the staff  Higher the note= Higher the pitch  The Grand Staff o Both Bass and Clef staff combined Music Alphabet  A – G  Letters are repeated from A – G o Reason: Relationships between notes of the same name  The higher note(A) will vibrate twice as fast as the (A) note before it Duration/Rhythm  Rhythm: Arrangement of notes of varying durations o Notes  Whole Note – Round + empty  Half Note – Round, Empty + Stick  Quarter Note– Round, Black, + Stick  Eighth Note– Round, Black + flag  Sixteenth Note – Round, Black + 2 flags o Rests  Whole Rest – Solid Black Hyphen  Half Rest – little black hat  Quarter Rest – Lighting Bolt  Eigth rest – Stick with a curl to the left  Sixteenth rest – stick with 2 curls to the left (One above and one below)  The Steady Pulse (Beat) o Tapping foot= Ex. Of reaction to the rhythm o Organized into groups = Meter  Duple (groups of 2)  Strong-Weak-Strong-Weak  Triple (groups of 3)  Strong – weak – weak – Strong – weak – weak Measures/Bars and Time/Meters Signatures  Measure/Bars lines o Vertical lines in the Staff to separate the notes  Time/meter Signature 2 numbers after Clef note  Top: How many beats in a measure  Can be any number  Bottom: Represents value of a note  Only these numbers o 1 o 2 o 4 o 8 o 16  4/4 is common time  Sometimes have a c instead of 4/4 Tempo  Speed of the beat o Italian words indicate tempo  Measured with Metronome o MM Aug 26th  Vocab for Tempo o Presto: Very Fast o Allegro: Fast o Andante: Walking o Adagio: Slow Rhythm  Beat – strong/weak  Meter – Duple/triple  Measure/bar – Section of a piece of music that contain a set amount o beats, o Typically, the same amount of each measure  Time signature – set of two numbers at the beginning of the piece  Syncopation – accent on the note hitch is not normally accented  Note values – whole/half/ eighth/ sixteenth – relative duration indicative by the shape of the note  Rests – silence is in music  Tempo – rate of speed or pace of music (allegro, andante, adagio) o Metronome Pitch + Rhythm = Melody  Ascending o Center around one note  Descending o Center around one note  Conjunct o Notes are close to each other (easy to sing)  Disjunct o Notes are far apart (jumps in the notes)  Phrase o Number of notes you can sing in one breathe  Theme o Most memorable part. Dynamics  Terms o Piano – Soft (p) o Forte – Loud (f)  Mezzo – Moderately (m)  -issimo – Very Loud (repeated letter) o Crescendo – Gradually louder o Diminuendo/Decrescendo – Gradually softer Timbre  Quality of a sound that distinguishes one voice or instrument from another  Tone color – Can be described as Brilliant, dark, bright, mellow, rich… Instrument Families  String o Vibrating string  Bowed  Violin  Viola  Cello  bass  plucked  harp  guitar  banjo  Mandolin  Woodwind o Blowing air  Reed-less  Piccolo  Flute  Single reed  Clarinet  Saxophone (Has reed do not Brass)  double reed  Oboe  English horn  Bassoon Aug 26 and 29th  Brass o Metal  Tuba (Conical – curved)  Lowest sounding  Sousaphone  Tuba for marching band (wraps around person)  Trombone  Extend slide – Lower sound  Short slide – Higher sound  Trumpet  French Horn  You put hand inside bell o Mouth piece shape like cup o Vibration of the lips is how the sound is produced  Percussion o Definite pitch/ indefinite pitch  Definite  Timpani  Glockenspiel  Xylophone  Vibraphone  Chines  Marimba  Indefinite  Snare drum  Bass drum  Tambourine  Triangle  Cymbals  Gong (tam-tam)  Brake drum  Keyboard o Sound produced by pressing a Key  Piano  Grand: top lifts to be vertical  Upright: Horizontal top  Organ  Harpsichord  Spinet  Virginal  Celesta  Accordion  Electric o Modern Development o Source of sound is Electronic  Teilharmonium  Ondes martenot  Theramin  Synthesizers  MIDI  Voice o Female:  Soprano  Mezzo-soprano  Contralto (Aka Alto) o Male  Tenor  Baritone  Bass  Counter Tenor Aug 29 th ORCHESTRA  Many instruments of same family and they all play in a group  1 instrument per part, small ensemble= Chamber  Seating o Standard  Conductor  Controls dynamics  Control tempo  Needs to have the deepest knowledge of the music  Needs precise ear to fix the problem right away  String  Violins to the left  Front = Violas  Cello= right  Double bass= right back  Woodwind  Front behind the Strings  Percussion  All the way in the back Aug 31  Harmony o Effect of simultaneous sounds  The Overtone Series o The number 12 and the intervals is a natural phenomenon not a cultural thing  Interval o Distance between two notes  Octave  Same note o Will vibrate twice as fast as the note below  White and black keys between the notes on a piano o White notes = major o Black notes = accidentals o Half-step (smallest interval  Accidentals  Sharp (#)  Flat (b) o Whole step  2 half steps  Chromatic scale o Uses all 12 tones  Going up – sharp (#)  Going down – Flat (b)  Diatonic scales o Major scale  Whole-Whole-Half- Whole-Whole-Half o Minor scale  Whole- Half- Whole- Whole(-Half-Whole-Whole)  Keaton’s formula o 7+5+12  7 tones (original + 5 tones = 12 tones September 2  Chord- two or more notes sounding simultaneously o Triad – three notes sounding simultaneously, from every other note in the scale o Diatonic – derived from scale o Constant harmonies – pleasing or relaxing o Dissonant harmonies – tensed or unstable o Cadence – stopping or resting place in the piece of music where tense harmonies resolve to relaxed ones o Key – The central note in a piece  Texture o Monophonic – single unaccompanied melody o Homophonic – melody and accompaniment  Arpeggio (broken chords) o Polyphonic – Several different melodies of relatively importance  Form – arrangement of contrasting and repeating musical materials o Strophic – several verses of text, each set to the same music o Binary – AB o Ternary – ABA  Twinkle little star o Ronda – ABACA or ABACABA (Coda) o Variation – A, A’, A”  Timbre o Vocals/instruments  Melody o Conject/Disjunct  Rhythm o Duple/triple meter  Dynamics o Steady or changing  Harmony o Consonant/dissonant  Texture o Monophonic/Homophonic/Polyphonic  Form o Binary o Ternary o Ronda o Variation


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