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by: Serina Notetaker

practice Western Civ

Serina Notetaker


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Western civ
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Serina Notetaker on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Western Civ at MassBay Community College taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
ROME Original People: - Etruscans 750 bce bringing in sewers, roads, alphabet, forum, togas - Romans – Latins settled near Tiber River for the 7 Hills as defense (Both heavy Greek influence) - Celts and Gauls 390 bce looters ***************************************** Terms to Know: (Political and Social) Republic – Romans ousted Etruscans in order to run the state. Forum – Public meeting place Senate – Government that controlled money, foreign policy, courts. They were advisory in nature and NOT legislative until later. Popular Assembly – Voted on laws and elected officials. Ten tribunes. Magistrates – Governed in the name of Rome. Could veto (refuse) Praetors – Led army in times of war or led legal system in times of peace Legion – Roman army Patricians – Free citizens with a political voice, wealthy landowners Plebeians – Free Citizens with a political voice but no high office. They could not marry patricians Struggle of the Orders – Protection from plebeians from patricians. Paterfamilias – Head of family who made all major decisions and could kill the wife in cases of adultery. Punic Wars: (Expansion, expansion, which ultimately grows and defines Rome) #1. Rome v. Carthage over control of Sicily 264-241 bce. Once Sicily goes under Roman control, Rome is able to control Mediterranean Sea #2. Rome v. Spain under Spanish Hannibal. In 218 bce he crossed 1000-mile expanse of the Alps and was successful at the Battle of Trebbia, Battle of Lake Trasimene, and Battle of Cannae where 40,000 Roman soldiers were killed. In 210 bce the Roman General Scipio Africanus was able to copy Hannibal’s military technique by mobilized warfare, new weapons, and independent legions. As a result, Rome could now control Spain (Defeat at Metaurus). In 207 bce Carthage was Crushed and in 202 Zama was gained and hence the western Mediterranean. #3 In 146 bce Carthage was crushed upon the insistence of the Senate and Carthaginians enslaved. Greece was also controlled and later Egyptian areas. Roman Reformers: Tiberius Gracchus –Because many of the veterans owned land that they did not care for, much of the land was occupied by slaves and it grew into slums. Tiberius advocated for land offerings to the poor without Senate approval. He was later killed. 163-133 bce Gaius Gracchus – Tiberius’ brother wanting more reforms such as cheap grain for the poor. He too was killed. 153-121 bce. Gaius Marius – Improves legion recruitment by granting pay and booty (spoils of war) as well as slaves to soldiers. This creates an allegiance to generals and not to Rome. Lucius Sulla – Cements troop loyalty and enlarges senate. Creates an army of allegiance that ultimately leads to Civil War. Triumvirates (Under the Roman Triumvirates, Roman expansion continues) First Triumvirate- Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar 58 Caesar governs and conquers Gaul (Northern France/vast area) 49 Triumvirate falls and Crassus dies in battle 44 Caesar defeats Pompey and names his nephew Octavian successor During Caesar’s leadership, in addition to his conquest of Gaul, he held Great oratory skills, crossed the Rubicon and controlled Greece, Spain, and Rome while claiming self as Dictator for Life. He also Created the 365 day calendar, offered grain to the poor and formed an alliance with Cleopatra from Egypt. Second Triumvirate – Octavian Augustus, Marc Antony, Lepidus Lepidus retires while Marc Antony takes control of the Eastern Part of the empire including Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt. Octavian controls The western part and takes the title Augustus or revered one. Later, he Will be the first to use the title “Imperator” or Emperor. This is a time of Pax Romana – Roman Peace where the economy, trade Manufacturing and the military are all strong. FOUR ERAS Julio-Claudians – Including Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. Under Claudius Rome was able to expand as far west as Great Britain. This was the time of Jesus. Four Emperors – Nero, Galba, Otho, and Vitellius. We see a breakdown of the Principate and Civil War. Flavians – Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian. We see consolidation of the frontiers, growth of bureaucracy and peace. Antonins– Also known as the good emperors. Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. They were wise, fair, and human. It was a time of strong economic advances and strong trade. There were, however, a lot of barbarian invasions. Decline - After 400 hundred years, Rome, with its 1500-mile expanse was plagued by barbaric invasion (Ostrogoth, Visigoths, Huns, and Vandals) as well as high taxes, a medical plague, a lack of patriotism, rural poverty and corruption. Diocletian 284-337 a.d. Divides the empire and takes the east while Maximum takes the west. The economy improves. Constantine – Controls Byzantine area known as Constantinople now (modern day Istanbul), grows Christianity and a strong military force. Theodosius – last emperor of a unified Rome Romulus Augustus – last of the western emperors.


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