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Rhetoric and Narrative class notes

by: Ashley Pace

Rhetoric and Narrative class notes ENC 1143-0

Marketplace > University of North Florida > English > ENC 1143-0 > Rhetoric and Narrative class notes
Ashley Pace
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

These notes cover Bitzer's "The Rhetorical Situation".
Rhetoric and Narrative
Nicholas A. de Villiers
Class Notes
Bitzer, rhetoric, narrative, english
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Pace on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENC 1143-0 at University of North Florida taught by Nicholas A. de Villiers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Rhetoric and Narrative in English at University of North Florida.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Ashley Pace 8/25/16 Rhetoric and Narrative Notes The Rhetorical Situation: Lloyd F. Bitzer Initial Notes - This essay was originally a speech, but was rewritten as a paper for an extended second audience. - Speaker: Lloyd F. Bitzer, Associate professor of Speech at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. - Audience: attendees of the public lecture at Cornell University in 1967, as well as readers of Philosophy and Rhetoric, volume 1. (Fellow “rhetoricians”, or people who study rhetoric) - Subject: The Rhetorical Situation. - Speech: consistent with that of a speech meant to be read aloud, as this was originally intended to be one. Exigence: urgency, necessity, obligation - The need to address a certain event at a certain time, due to its urgency or the nature of the situation at hand. For example, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, death of people in positions of power, et cetera. - 9/11, death of Nelson Mandela, Orlando Shooting, Syrian refugee crisis, Assassination of JFK, Hurricane Katrina, Sandy Hook, etc. - The media utilizes exigence to either create or relieve fear of an event. For example, every media source covered the Orlando club shooting, so that audiences of each news source would know who had been injured or killed in this event. Contrived Exigence - Emulates an urgent situation for a particular reason - For example, urgent speeches in movies or television. - An attempt to convince an audience of something, whether or not it is actually true or accurate. - The creation of unnecessary fear in an environment or audience. Sophistry - Example: “Obama is the founder of ISIS” -Trump - Ability to convince regardless of truth - Example: DNC, RNC - Lawyers who declare their client’s innocence, while knowing that they are in fact guilty. Allegorical poetry, novels, etc. - Fictional pieces that attempt to address real situations or issues (RENT, Hamilton) Civil Disobedience: Ashley Pace 8/25/16 Rhetoric and Narrative Notes - Used when rhetoric fails because of constraints, and action needs to be taken - For example: March on Washington, Black Lives Matter blocking roadways, etc. Ethos: Ethics - Appeal to the audience’s personal ideals and viewpoints. - Political viewpoints, upbringing, class, race, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, et cetera. Pathos: Pathology, Pathetic (feelings) - Appeal to the personal feelings of an audience. - For example, sad, slow music playing in the background of a commercial encouraging people to adopt shelter animals. Logos: Logic - Appeal to logic and knowledge - For example, the testimonial of a doctor in a commercial for an experimental medication. Kairos: Timing - The appropriate timing of rhetoric. - “The spirit of the stairs” French saying - Exigence of a situation – media coverage, et cetera. The speaker often addresses the audience in a way that implies his feelings that his audience agrees with his ideas, and knows what he means by his words.


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