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Chapter 5 Notes: Molecules and Compounds

by: Rebecca de la O

Chapter 5 Notes: Molecules and Compounds CH 101

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > CH 101 > Chapter 5 Notes Molecules and Compounds
Rebecca de la O

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Ionic boding covalent bonding emprirical, molecular, and structural formula naming ionic compounds naming molecules formula mass conversions beginning of lewis structure
General Chemistry
Jared Allred
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca de la O on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CH 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jared Allred in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Chapter 5: Molecules and Compounds - Chemical bond describes the forces that hold atoms together o Strong bonds = lower in energy and more stable (between compounds or molecules) - Ionic bond = held together because 2 atoms with opposite signs are attracted to each other + - o Ex. NaCl  Na + Cl o 1 atom needs a large negative electron affinity o The other must have a small ionization energy o Nonmetal + metal - Covalent bond = 2 nonmetals get close, neither wants to give up an electron because both have large -EA and large IE so they share their valence electrons o Ex. H 2, CO ,2C H2 6 Chemical Formula - Describes the ratio of elements in a compound o Ex. H 2  1 oxygen atom 2 hydrogen atoms - Molecule: discrete, covalently bonded with a finite number of atoms o Nonmolecular  NaCl - Molecular formula gives the actual number of atoms in a molecule - Empirical formula gives the relative number of atoms in a compound - Ex. C 2 6 molecular CH 3 emipircal C H O  molecular CH O emipircal 6 12 6 2 C 3 8 molecular C3H 8 emipircal Structural Formula - Explains arrangement in a molecule - Ex. H 2 2 H -O-O-H CO 2 O = C = O Ionic Formula - Charge must be balanced - Ex. Ca 2+ F-  Ca 2+ 2F - CaF 2 o Ca has 2+ because it wants to lose 2 electrons to be stable o F has - because it wants to gain 1 electron to be stable o You need two 1- from the fluorine to balance the 2+ charge Naming Ionic Compunds - Metal name + nonmetal name + “ide” - Ex. NaCl  sodium chloride Al2O 3 aluminum oxide ScN  scandium nitride - If an element can easily gain or lose different number electrons to be stable (like transition metals), use roman numerals to denote how many electrons are involved - Ex. Ti3+ O  Ti 2 3titanium (III) oxide 4+ 2- Ti O  Ti 2 4TiO  2itanium (IV) oxide Polyatomic Ions 2- - Ions with multiple atoms (Ex. CO 3 - carbonate) - Most stable form is named with suffix “ate” 2- - Lose 1 oxygen  add “ite” (Ex. CO 2 - carbonite) - Lose 2 oxygen  add “hypo” as a prefix and “ite” (Ex. CO 2-- hypocarbonite) 2+ - Gain 1 oxygen  add “per” as a prefix (Ex. CO 4 - percarbonate) - Learn this table: IONS STABLE LOSE 1 LOSE 2 GAIN 1 OXYGEN OXYGEN OXYGEN 2- 2- 2- 2- 2+ CO 3 CO 3 CO 2 CO CO 4 carbonate Carbonite hypocarbonit percarbonite e - - - - + NO 3 NO 3 NO 2 NO NO 4 nitrate nitrite hyponitrite pernitrate 2- 2- 2- 2- 2+ SO 4 SO 4 SO 3 SO 2 SO 5 sulfate sulfite hyposulfite persulfate - - - - + ClO 3 ClO 3 ClO 2 ClO ClO4 Chlorate chlorite hypochlorite Perchlorate 3- 3- 3- 3- 3+ PO 4 PO 4 PO 3 PO 2 PO5 phosphate Phosphite hypophosphit perphosphate e Also know these: OH - O 22- H2O 22- NH 4+ MnO 4- CN - CrO - 4 hydroxid peroxide Hydroge Ammoniu Permangana Cyanide Dichromat e n m te e peroxide Example Test Question: What is the formula of calcium nitride? a) Ca 3 2correct b) CaN  incorrect because Ca has a 2+ charge and N has a 3- charge and they must balance c) Ca(NO )2 2incorrect because there is an oxygen d) Ca(NO )3 2incorrect because there is an oxygen e) Ca(NO )3 incorrect because there is an oxygen Hydrates - When water is part of the ionic compound - To name, add “hydrate” at the end and the number of H O mole2ules as the prefix - Ex. CaCl 2 6H O2 calcium chloride hexadrate Prefixes Naming Molecules - Different from ionic because they don’t have charges to tell you how to balance - Numerical prefix + first element numerical prefix + second element + “ide” o Omit prefix “mono” for the first element - Ex. CO  carbon monoxide CO 2 carbon dioxide H 2  hydrogen dioxide S8 octasulfur CCl 4 carbon tetrachloride P2O 5 diphosphorous pentaoxide Using Formulas to Convert to Mass and Moles - Formula mass = the mass per mole of a molecule, compound, or ion - Formula mass = ƩnA W sum of the atomic weight times the number of atoms of each element - Ex. H 2  (2 x 1.008 g/mol) + (1 x 16.00 g/mol) = 18.016 g/mol MgO  (1 x 24.31 g/mol) + (1 x 16.00 g/mol) = 40.31 g/mol P  4 x 30.97 g/mol = 123.88 g/mol 4 Percentage by Mass Ex. SF 6 sulfur hexafluoride a) What is the percentage of fluoride by atoms? 6 fluorine atoms + 1 sulfur atom = 7 total atoms part 6 = x100 x100 whole  7 = 85.714 % are F atoms b) What is the percent of fluorine by mass? massof allthe fluorine x100 % = massof thecompound Mass of all the fluorine = 6 x 19.00g/mol (atomic mass) = 114.0 g/mol Mass of SF = (1 x 32.06 g/mol) + (6 x 19.00g/mol) = 146.9 g/mol 6 114g/mol 146.9g/mol x100 = 78.03 % F * Strategy: keep track of the # of atoms and convert to mass only when needed Ex. In Na2CO 3 for every formula unit there are 2 units of Na, 1 unit of C, and 3 units of O (look at subscripts) If we use units of mol: 1 mol Na 2O h3s  2 mol Na, 1 mol C, and 3 mol O 2- +  1 mol CO 3 and 2 mol Na Formula mass of Na CO2= (3 x 22.99 g/mol) + (1 x 12.01 g/mol) + (3 x 16.00 g/mol) = 105.99 g/mol If we have 12.6 g Na C2 , 3ow many grams of O are there? 2 ways to solve this: 1) Molar ratio of Na 2O :3O  1:3 massof Na2CO3 # mol Na C2 = 3 formula mass ¿molof Na2CO3 1 ¿molO = 3 Mass of O = atomic mass x # of mol massof Na2CO3 = atomic mass of O x 3 x formula mass 3xatomicmass of O 2) Mass % of O = formulamassof Na2CO3 3 x atomicmass of O Mass of O = mass of Na CO2x 3 formulamassof Na2CO 3 3x16.00g/mol = 12.6 x 105.99g/mol = 5.71 g O Lewis Structure - Non-quantum mechanical (nothing to do with electrons being in orbitals) - Based on number of valence electrons (look at their group/column number) - Draw the elemental symbol and put dots around it (dots correspond to # of valence electrons) Lithium has 1 valence electron Nitrogen has 5 valence electrons Neon has a full octet - To draw the Lewis structure of ionic compounds: Magnesium oxide  MgO  Beryllium bromide  BeBr 2


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