Psyc 1500 Chapter 4 notes
Psyc 1500 Chapter 4 notes Psyc 1500
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelby Orlando on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1500 at Lakeland Community College taught by Dr. Gabriel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Lakeland Community College.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
9/27 notes: Chapter 4: Consciousness Consciousness- a person’s awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment Altered state of consciousness- state in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness Necessity of Sleep Circadian rhythm- a cycle of bodily rhythm that occurs over a twenty-four-hour period (Regulated by suprachiasmatic nucleus) “Circa: about “Diem”: day The pineal gland receives instructions from the Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) to release melatonin Biological influences on sleep: - SCN (Internal time-clock) inside the hypothalamus - Melatonin- body chemical; relates to sleep - Serotonin- neurotransmitter in our brain; relates to sleep - Body Temperature- lower body temp= better sleep; determined when we sleep Jet lag- isturbed body rhythms caused by rapid travel east of west. Direction of travel matters- traveling west (longer days) is easier to adjust to than traveling east (shorter days) Microsleeps- brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only a few seconds Sleep Deprivation- any significant loss of sleep - Results in irritability and problems with concentration - Can have serious consequences Driving while sleepy can be just as dangerous as drunk driving. Adaptive Theory of Sleep- Sleep is a product of evolution Animals and humans evolved different sleep patterns to avoid being present during their predators’ normal hunting times. Stages of Sleep Rapid eye movement (REM)- stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream. NREM (non-REM)- any of the stages of sleep that do not include REM ● Do not dream in deep sleep ● takes about 90 mins to go through all the stages of sleep ● An hour is the worse time frame to sleep ● Better sleep for 20 minutes or 90 minutes N3- deepest level of sleep; sleepwalking occurs - Someone who relies heavily on sleeping pills or alcohol to sleep might experience REM rebound the following night. Sleep Disorders ● Insomnia- can’t fall asleep; wake up in the middle of the night but can’t fall back asleep. ● Narcolepsy- disorder that causes them to fall asleep during the day. ● Sleep apnea- have hours of sleep but still fell exhausted; body stops breathing throughout the stages. (loudly snore) ● Sleepwalking- happens during NREM stage (sleeping causes us to be paralysed)- in children Psychoactive Drugs ● Addiction- person feels physically and psychologically compelled to take the drug ○ Smoking; stop smoking for a year, still have craving. ● Psychical dependence- when the body/brain chemistry have adapted to the drug ○ Caffeine; headache if didn’t have it that day. ● Tolerance- when increasing amounts are needed to produce the same effect ○ More and more of drug to produce the same effect (vodka bottle a day or more) ● Withdrawal symptoms- unpleasant physical reactions when drug use is stopped ○ Headaches, nausea, tremors ● Drug abuse- recurrent drug use that results in life disruptions/problems ○ Dependent on drug; kills relationships Drug Classes: Stimulants- increase the functioning of the nervous system - Cocaine: natural drug that produces euphoria, energy, power and pleasure (no medical uses) - Caffeine: the stimulant found in coffee, tea, most sodas, chocolate, and even many over-the-counter drugs (drink) - Amphetamines: drugs that are synthesized (made in labs) rather than found in nature (Improve alertness, causes delusions) - Nicotine: active ingredient in tobacco (doesn’t “calm down”, reduces state of anxiety) Withdrawals: feel more physically exhausted, experiences slight levels of depression, hungary, brain hemorrhaging. Depressants- drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system - Rohypnol: the “date rape” drug - Alcohol: often mistaken for a stimulant, alcohol is actually a CNS depressant (numbs sensitivity, decreases cerebellum activity ((Blackout))) - Barbiturates: depressant drugs that have a sedative effect - Benzodiazepines: drugs that lower anxiety and reduce stress (Xanax-reduce nervousness or tension) Narcotics- suppress the sensation of pain by binding to stimulating the nervous system’s natural receptor sites for endorphins - Morphine: narcotic drug derived from opium; used to treat severe pain - Heroin: narcotic drug derived from opium that is extremely addictive - Opium: substances made from the opium poppy and from which all narcotic drugs are derived Hallucinogens (Psychogenic Drugs): drugs that produce hallucinations, increased relaxation, and intoxication - LSD: powerful synthetic hallucinogen - PCP: synthesized drug that can cause stimulant.], depressant, narcotic, or hallucinogenic effects - Marijuana (Pot or weed): mild hallucinogen derived from a particular type of hemp plant - Hallucinogens: drugs that cause false sensory messages, altering the perception of reality - MDMA (ecstasy or X): designer drug that can have both stimulant and hallucinogenic effects Dreams: Manifest content- actual dream itself