General Chemistry Notes: Week 3 & 4 (Chapter 4)
General Chemistry Notes: Week 3 & 4 (Chapter 4) CHM 111
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey N Detrick on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 111 at Elon University taught by Amanda Watson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
General Chemistry Week 4-5 Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution 1. Aqueous: solutions that dissolve in H2O 2. Solutions: homogenous mixture of 2+ substances a. Solvent: major component of a solution i. Ex. coffee b. Solute: minor component of a solution i. Ex. sugar/cream/both 3. Electrolyte: chemicals that conduct electricity in H2O a. Ex. C H6O 12 n6 ions i. No electricity + - b. Ex. NaCl à Na ion + Cl ion i. Conducts electricity c. Strong Electrolytes: completely breaks up + - i. Ex. NaCl à Na + Cl d. Week Electrolytes: partially breaks up i. Ex. CH C3OH à CH COO + H 3 - + 1. Only 1 ion forms (H) 4. Salt: Ionic Complex a. not all salts are soluble i. ex. Pb(NO ) +3 2I à PbI + 2KNO 2 3 5. Double Displacement Reaction: a. AB + CD à AD + CB 6. Ionic Equation: a. ex. Pb(NO ) 3 2 (aq) 2KI (aq)à PbI 2 (s) 2KNO 3 (aq) b. Pb + 2NO + 2K +32I à Pbl + 2K + 2NO 2 + 3- i. Remove “spectator Ions” c. Pb + 2I à Pbl 2 7. Rules: Refer to handout “simple solubility summarization” 8. Acids and Bases: a. Acids: donate/release H in solution i. Ex. HCL à H + Cl + - ii. Vocab: 1. Monoprotic: 1 H released 2. Diprotic: 2 H released + + -2 a. Ex. H SO2à H 4 HSO (H + SO ) 4 4 3. Triprotic: 3 H released + - b. Bases: accept H in solution or produce OH in solution i. Ex. NaOH à Na + OH Oxidation and Reduction 1. Oxidation Equation: a. Na à Na + e+ - +2 - b. Ba à Ba + 2e 2. Reduction Equation: - -2 a. Cl + e à O 3. Compounds: Combination of both a. 2Ca + O à22CaO i. 2Ca = oxidation ii. O = reduction 4. Rules for Oxidation: a. Free element in uncombined state is O b. A monotonic Ion equals the charge on the ion c. O in a compounds is generally -2 d. H in a compound is +1 e. In a neutral compound the sum of the oxidation numbers for all the atoms is O f. In a polyatomic ion the sum of the oxidation numbers of all the atoms is equal to the charge on the ion g. Group 1 metals are +1 h. Group 2 metals are +2
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