Week 6 Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Edwards on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1030 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Baldwin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see General Biology in BIO at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Week 6 Notes Cancer o A tumor is an abnormally growing mass of body cells Benign tumors remain at original site Malignant tumors spread to other locations called metastasis Chromosomes o In humans somatic cells have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes One pair from each parent o The human sex chromosomes X and Y differ in size and genetic composition Life cycle o Stages going from Adults to the next generation Adults to the next Meiosis o Process that converts diploid nuclei to haploid nuclei Diploid Cells Two homologous sets of chromosomes Haploid cells `Have one set of chromosomes o Occurs in the sex organs, producing gametes, sperm and eggs o Fertilization is the union of sperm and egg o The zygote has a diploid chromosome number, one set from each parent o Meiosis is followed by two consecutive cell divisions o Mitosis is followed by one cell division Meiosis by the phases o Prophase 1 Chromosomes coil and compact Homologous chromosomes come together as a pairs by synapsis Four chromatids called tetrad Nonsister chromatids exchange genetic material by crossing over o Meiosis 1- Metaphase 1 Tetrads align at the cell equator o Meiosis 1- Anaphase 1 Homologous pairs separate and move apart o Meiosis 1- Telophase 1 Duplicated chromosomes have reached the poles A nuclear envelope re-forms around chromosomes in some species Each nucleus has the haploid number of chromosomes o Meiosis II – Prophase II Chromosomes coil and become compact (if uncoiled after telophase I). Nuclear envelope, if re-formed, breaks up again. o Meiosis II – Metaphase II – Duplicated chromosomes align at the cell equator. o Meiosis II – Anaphase II Sister chromatids separate and chromosomes move toward opposite poles o Meiosis II – Telophase II Chromosomes have reached the poles of the cell. A nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes. With cytokinesis, four haploid cells are produced o
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