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ECON 2012 Week One Notes

by: renee.davis Notetaker

ECON 2012 Week One Notes Econ 2012

Marketplace > University of Colorado Denver > Econ 2012 > ECON 2012 Week One Notes
renee.davis Notetaker
CU Denver

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About this Document

These notes cover what we need to know for the first exam. They include notes for the first week of lectures, and include notes from the required textbook readings..
Prin of Econ: Macroeconomics
kyle hurst
Class Notes
Economics, Math
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by renee.davis Notetaker on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Econ 2012 at University of Colorado Denver taught by kyle hurst in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.

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Date Created: 10/03/16
Renee Davis September , 21  2016 Chem 1474 Dr. Priscilla Burrow Sunscreen Lab Report     Renee Davis September , 21  2016 Chem 1474 Dr. Priscilla Burrow Hypothesis Neutrogena’s Beach Defense Water and Sun Protection Sunscreen Lotion SPF 30 Chemical  Sunscreen will be equally as effective as Banana Boat Kids Water Resistant Sunscreen  Protection SPF 50 Physical Sunblock in protecting skin from sunburns during outdoor activities  as the physical barrier provided by the physical sunblock will disintegrate as it is affected by the  moisture providing less protection over time. Materials Sunscreens used: Neutrogena: Beach Defense, Water and Sun protection, Sunscreen Lotion UVA/UVB Protection  SPF 30 (Sunscreen 1) Banana Boat: Kids UVA/UVB Protection Sunscreen Lotion containing Titanium Dioxide and  Zinc Oxide. SPF 50 (Sunscreen 2) Procedure: 1) Photograph your left and right shoulders and arms. 2) Thirty minutes before going outside apply Sunscreen 1 to left shoulder and arm 3) Fifteen minutes before going outside apply Sunscreen 2 to right shoulder and arm (Be  sure that both shoulders and arms are being exposed to sunlight.) 4) Prior to going outside measure UV Levels 5) Participate in two twenty minute intervals of cardio outdoors.  6) Take a twenty minute break to cool down outdoors, in the sun 7) Complete a ten minute high intensity workout in intervals of five 8) Rest for ten minutes in the sun 9) Return to a shaded area and photograph the difference if any in the effect of the sun on  the appearance of the areas being tested. Repeat this experiment the following day. The best timeframe to complete this experiment is 10:00am­2:00pm  Renee Davis September , 21  2016 Chem 1474 Dr. Priscilla Burrow Questions 1. After the experiment is there a visible difference in the appearance of the affected area? On day 1 at 1:30pm in North Carolina, the temperature was 82 degrees and cloudy. The  UV reading from The Weather Channel app was 2­Low. The procedure was followed, however, due to the cloudy sky, the experiment was not  effective and there was not a visible difference in the appearance of the exposed area.  On day 2 at 11:30am in North Carolina, the temperature was 88 degrees with blue skies.  The UV reading from The Weather Channel app was 5­Moderate. The procedure was followed. There was a notable difference in the appearance of the left  shoulder and arm where Neutrogena Beach Defense was applied. 2. In your opinion, which sunscreen was the most effective, and why? Sunscreen 2, Banana Boat Kids UVA/UVB Protection Sunscreen Lotion containing  Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide. SPF 50 was most effective guarding against the  effects of the sun. It is believed that this is due to the tester’s fair skin.  3. Identify 4 of the dependent and independent variables in this experiment. Four independent variables are sunscreen ingredients, UV rays, SPF, and weather  conditions.  Four dependent variables are sunburn, tan, freckle attainment, and skin cancer exposure. 4. What would be a more effective way to complete this experiment? A more effective way to complete this experiment would be to use different body parts  on Day 2 than on Day 1 since the Day 1 body part might already have coloring due to  sun exposure from first day of experiment. Data Day 1: Experiment conducted mid­day, temperature 88°. UV Reading: Moderate. 30 minutes  prior to exposure applied Neutrogena Beach to left shoulder and arm, 15 minutes prior to  Renee Davis September , 21  2016 Chem 1474 Dr. Priscilla Burrow exposure applied Banana Boat to right shoulder and arm. Completed exercises and rest periods.  Following experiment there was no visible difference between my left and right shoulders and  arms.  Day 2: Experiment conducted 2:00pm temperature 87° UV Reading: Moderate. 30 minutes prior  to exposure applied Neutrogena Beach to left shoulder and arm, 15 minutes prior to exposure  applied Banana Boat to right shoulder and arm. Completed exercises and rest periods. Following  experiment there was a slightly visible difference between the left and right shoulders and arms.  Left shoulder was slightly lighter than right shoulder, right arm experienced a slight burn. Analysis of a Classmates Experiment 1) (2 pts) What was the name of the classmate whose experiment you performed? Angelica  Jameson 2) (2 pts) Was their procedure clear? Yes, very clear and well thought out.  3) (2 pts) Were you able to successfully complete the experiment based on their directions?  Yes. 4) (6 pts) What three suggestions can you provide to help them create a better  experiment/procedure/questions? A) Assign testing areas to specific sunscreens. B) Number  procedure C) Possibly including sources to know more about the intention behind the  experiment.  5) (8 pts) Answers to the 4 questions posed by your classmate. 1. After one hour, is there a noticeable difference in protection when applied according to  sunscreen package directions vs. being applied immediately before sun exposure? Day 1: Sept 22 , 2016 12:00pm. 79° Neutrogena Beach Defense applied to top of right  arm between wrist and elbow fifteen minutes prior to exposure, same sunscreen applied to top of left arm immediately before exposure. UV reading: moderate. Following the hour  moved into shade for 30 minutes, and there was no visible difference in protection. Day 2: Sept 23 , 2016 12:00pm 86° Banana Boat Kids sunscreen applied to same areas.  Applied to top right arm 15 minutes prior to exposure applied to top left arm immediately  before exposure. UV reading: High. Following the hour moved into shade for 30 minutes  and saw no visible difference in protection.  Day 3: Sept 24 , 2016 75° Coppertone Kids sunscreen applied to same areas. Applied to  right arm 15 minutes prior to exposure applied to left arm immediately before exposure.  UV reading: Moderate. Following the hour moved into shade for 30 minutes found a slight difference in protection on left arm.  Renee Davis September , 21  2016 Chem 1474 Dr. Priscilla Burrow 2. Must all sunscreens that contain Avobenzone also contain Octocrylene, Oxybenzone, or  something similar in order to be effective? No. All sunscreens must not contain Avobenzone, Octocrylene, or Oxybenzonein order  to  be effective.  3. Regarding question 2, why or why not? For this experiment what seemed to be one of the more effective sunscreens turned out to  be equally as effective as the sunscreen containing Avobenzone.  4. What are some of the dangers of intense or long­term exposure to UVA’s and UVB’s? Long term exposure to UVA and UVB’s can be dangerous as long term exposure to UVA’s  can affect your skin in terms of premature aging, but it also affect the deepest layers of the  skin as it can affect the basal layer of the epidermis by damaging keratinocytes which can  lead to skin cancer. UVB rays have an effect on the outer layer of the skin and can cause  severe burns.  2. (10 pts) Feedback. Answer the following: a. (3 pts) Was your classmate able to answer the questions you provided? Would you  change any of the questions now that someone else has tried to answer them? Why or  why not? Yes, my classmate was able to answer the questions provided. I would not  change any of the questions provided. The questions provided offer valuable data for the  experiment and allowed the tester and whoever analyzes the data to think about the  relationship between the results and the strength of the independent and dependent  variables. I would probably change the way the experiment is conducted though as I  realized the procedure is slightly confusing.    b. (4 pts) Comment on the suggestions that he or she made about your experiment. Would  you implement these changes? Why or why not? I would implement these suggestions.  She suggested that I use different body parts to complete the experiment so that the  experiment is unaffected by the results and effect of the following experiment. I would  implement these changes because that system would give us a more clear look at  individual product results.  c. (3 pts) Do you think that this type of peer review should be present for any scientific  research? Why or why not? This type of peer review would be helpful to scientific  research. People interpret things differently often and have different variables present  sometimes when they conduct experiments so the results of an experiment could vary  ever so slightly or ever so much because of variables or interpretation. For example, my  partner lives in North Carolina and UV levels can vary dependent of geographical  location so that changes the interpretation of the results. In Colorado Neutrogena was  more effective than Banana Boat kids and the opposite was true for my partners results  Renee Davis September , 21  2016 Chem 1474 Dr. Priscilla Burrow from North Carolina. A follow up for this experiment could be to conduct the experiment  over a longer period of time with fewer independent variables.  Conclusion The data collected made the hypothesis inconclusive. One experiment found the Neutrogena  Beach Defense to be the most effective and the second experiment found the Banana Boat  sunscreen to be most effective. Future research could include a stricter procedures and stricter  environments as the results could have varied due to the climate differences of the geographical  locations the experiments were conducted in. Some of the systematic sources of error may have  occurred at the variances of the independent variables as it is difficult to determine how effective one sunscreen is to another through a) the means by which that determination is made­ we  determined effectiveness based on how much of a tan occurred which is not effective, and b) the  temperature at which the experiment is performed. 


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