Chapter 5: Where it All Takes Place
Chapter 5: Where it All Takes Place PLS 150
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Opong-Wadeer on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PLS 150 at University of Rhode Island taught by Nathaniel Mitkowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Plants, People and the Planet in Plant Science at University of Rhode Island.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Chapter 5: Where it All Takes Place 10/3/16 PLS 150 Growth processes = Reproduction: 1 thing living things do Cellular metabolism: all your cells are functioning Growth Response to environment: o Humans respond to environment by wearing a coat if it's cold or bringing an umbrella if it's raining o Plant's response do things as they growth How plants are studied: Morphology= common way plants are studied Morphos = 'form" Plants or parts beyond level Cytology = Kytos = "container' Look at cells Cells: Robert Hooke (1665) o First person to ID cells o Observed slice of cork under microscope o Named tiny units "cells" Cell= "small room" in Latin All living things exist in cells Human body has about 50 trillion cells Microscopic, constantly dividing o Always dividing to produce more and more cells o As you get older cells stop replacing themselves, that's why you get wrinkles and age Self contained but independent o A single cell isn't an organism o Communicate regularly with numerous chemicals Typical plant cell: Major plant parts: Cell wall (plants) o Basic structural unit of a plant, it's ridged o Made of cellulose, cellulose is composed of chains of glucose molecules Cell membranes o On the inside of the cell wall o Membrane like a balloon because if you put a balloon around your hand it will form around your hand o Acts as a control mechanism to keep everything in tacked (a seal) Nucleus o Contains the DNA, DNA tells the cell what to do Vacuole (plants) o Also like a tiny balloon that sits inside the cell o Holds waste products/water o It's a storage area o Plants need water in the vacuole to stand up Plasmodesmata (plants) o Channels that runs from one plant cell to another plant cell o Like a little highway to send signals from one plant to another Equivalent to factory Protoplasm= fluid of nucleus or cytoplasm Cytoplasmic membrane o Just another word for membrane Organelles o Doing specific tasks to keep the whole thing running o Major units inside the cell Chloroplast o Contains all the chlorophyll Mitochondrion o Break down sugars to produce energy o Only inherited from your mother Cell walls: Area between cell walls= middle lamella, made of pectin Pectin acts like glue Primary wall = cellulose Secondary wall = lignin and more cellulose Lignin: trees carry this so it won't decay as fast if you cut down a tree and left it there o Strong/resistant to decay Organelles: Chloroplasts o Chlorophyll Mitochondria o Respiration: burning sugars to produce energy Ribosomes o Protein production Chloroplasts: Location of photosynthesis Membrane bound Many in each plant cell Plants only Multiply like bacteria o Split in two to produce more o Called bionaryfision? Thylakoids: where photosynthesis happens Mitochondria: Respiration for cells Burns sugars to make ATP (energy) Many in each plant cell Plants and animals Multiply like bacteria Just the opposite of Chloroplasts Ribosomes: Very small organelles Produce proteins from DNA Lots and lots in each cell More like blobs of protein than mini-cells o Take DNA to produce proteins Nucleus: Control center for: o General operation o Maintenance o Reproduction o Location of DNA o Produces DNA to tell your cells what to do The CEO of your body Nucleus dissolves when the cells divide, but contains the DNA rest of the time Other cell stuff: Many other organelles exist Perform many functions Plant cells communicate with each other using plasmodesmata Cell multiplication later Many cell types but... Bacteria are prokaryotes (everything floats around) Everything else are eukaryotes (they are much more complicated) Eukaryotes have a membrane bund nucleus Humans and plants are eukaryotic
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