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Psych 121 Notes Week 2

by: Ariel Johnson

Psych 121 Notes Week 2 Psych 121

Marketplace > Radford University > Psychology > Psych 121 > Psych 121 Notes Week 2
Ariel Johnson

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About this Document

These notes are part of CH 1 and CH 2
Introductory Psychology
Sarah Falkowitz
Class Notes
research, Psychology, experiment, definition
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ariel Johnson on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 121 at Radford University taught by Sarah Falkowitz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychology at Radford University.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Psych 121 Notes September 6, 2016 Psychology Today - Nature vs. Nurture (Big Historic Question) o Nature – Genetics/Heredity o Nurture – Experience/Situation o Goes back to the roots o Watched a YouTube video o Discussion  Does TV violence lead people to be more violent?  Is nature or nurture more significant in forming our personalities?  Are females genetically predisposed to like dolls? Are males genetically predisposed to like cars? Or is this more culturally shaped? - Biopsychological Approach o Behavior or Mental Process Psychologi  Biological Influence cal Social-  Genetics Biologi Cultura cal  Hormones l  Brain mechanisms (different chemicals) Influen  Anything happening within the body  Psychological Influence  Psychological Disorders Behavior or  Cognitive thoughts and feelings Mental  Learned fears and expectations  Psychodynamic Roots  Social-Cultural Influence  Environment  Peers (presence of others)  Situational experience  Cultural/Societal expectations  Compelling models (ex: media) - Current Theoretical Perspectives o Neuroscience  How the body and the brain enable experiences  Looking at the physiological responses o Evolutionary  Natural selection  how that promotes traits  Continuation of one’s genes  Looks at passing on genes through actions o Behavior Genetics  Combination of evolutionary and behavioral  How much our genes and environment influence one’s individual differences o Psychodynamic  How behavior comes from our unconscious  “parents didn’t love” so one turns into similar person o Behavioral  How we learn observable responses  Yelling parents  child turns into a yelling parent o Cognitive  How we process and store information  Memory of getting yelled at follows into adult hood and causes one to yell - Subfields o Basic  Ex: Biopsychology, Cognitive Psychology o Applied  Ex: Industrial Organizational, Counseling, and Clinical Psychology - Study Tips o SQ3R  Survey  Flipping through and reading section headings  Question  Coming up with questions you hope you can answer when you are done reading  Read  Read the chapter (manageable chunks so you don’t get tired)  Ensure it is comprehended  Rehearse  Going over what you just read and explaining it out in your own words  Review  Make an outline, review notes, review chapter - Additional Study Tips o Distribute Study Time  Don’t cram, study over time well before the test o Learn to think critically  Come up with questions  analyze o Listen actively  Come to class, take good notes, listen to professor o Overlearn  The more you learn, the more you will understand o Be a smart test taker  Most tests multiple choice  Read question  come up with answer yourself  find answer choice Review Questions - What are the three components of the biopsychosocial model? - Give me an example of each component of the biopsychosocial model. - What is the conclusion about the nature vs. nurture debate? - What is the difference between basic and applied research? - What does SQ3R stand for? Research in Psychology *won’t do all of it today, will be in next notes* - Science vs. Common Sense o Why do we need science? o Hindsight Bias  “I knew it all along” o Overconfidence  We are bad estimators  tdicepr = predict  rdwoep = powder  intekt = kitten  Tried some without answers o Mistake Random for Order  We see what we want to see  Showed example of finding Jesus in things - Scientific Attitude o Curiosity  Think about new questions  Research questions o Skepticism  Have to go into research thinking that what you previously knew may or may not have been true o Humility  Be able to admit when they are wrong - Theories o Theory  an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors o Theories help us:  Describe relationships between large numbers of variables  Organize our knowledge about variables  Explain why variables are related  Predict how variables should be related - The Scientific Method o A self-correcting, 5 step process for evaluating ideas using observation and analysis - Variables o Variable  an observable thing that changes (varies) o Independent Variable (IV)  causes a change in other variables o Dependent Variable (DV)  Changed because of IV o [*IV* IS CAUSE, *DV* IS EFFECT] o REVIEW  Researcher wants to know how smoking affects attractiveness.  IV  ________  DV  ________  Research wants to know how frequency of cursing is influenced by the amount of hours spent watching South Park  IV  amount of hours  DV  cursing - Research Designs o Descriptive/Correlational  Naturalistic observation  No manipulation  “Real World” behavior  Observer effects o Changing how you react based on being watched  Observer bias o The research causes the result of the observation to be less valid o Having preconceived ideas  Case studies  Surveys o Experimental - Ethics WILL GO OVER HIGHLIGHTED NEXT CLASS Psych 121 Notes September 8, 2016 **** SONA registration due Friday September 9 , 2016 (TOMORROW)**** - Description – The Case Study o Ask one person many questions (and/or rely on existing records  Rare or unusual cases o Used to study rare or unusual phenomena  Genie – “The Wild Child”  Watched the Documentary - Description – The Survey o Rely on closed ended questions  Relying on people to self-report  Can’t get an explanation for closed ended questions o Uses:  Assess peoples “overall” opinions, attitudes, and behaviors  Random Sampling  generalizable to the entire population (equal opportunity) o Limitations:  Socially desirable responding  Wording effects o Wording Effects  Ensure that you do not use leading questions  No double barrel questions (2 questions in one)  Do you have negative feelings about Colorado and South Park?  Instead Say “do you have negative feelings towards Colorado?” o Correlation  What is correlation?  A relationship between two variables  Positive and negative  Positive is when both variables move in the same direction o (scenario A goes up as well as scenario B)  Negative is when one variable increases, the other decreases +1 o (A goes up, B goes down) o (B goes up, A goes down) Correlation  Strength  Correlation Coefficient o Range from -1 to +1 o Also can be zero (no correlation)  Third Variable Problem  anything that effects the scenario -1 - Experiments Correlation o Manipulate IV (cause) / Observe DV (effect) o Defining features  Experimental group  (people actually taking the drug)  Control group  (people taking a placebo)  Random selection  Assigning people to different groups  Also known as random assignment o Example Experiment: The Effect of Room Temperature on Susceptibility to Anger  Independent Variable  Room Temperature  Dependent Variable  Susceptibility to Anger - Experiments (cont.) o Use: Testing Theories, Testing Causes o Limitations – lose realism, create artificiality o Potential Problem:  Confounding Variables  didn’t know existed, didn’t prepare for  What if the hot room had florescent lights and the cold room used LED lights?  What if the heater in the hot room was noisy and the cold room was quiet?  How would these affect the interpretation of our results? - Review o What is an independent Variable?  A variable whose variation does not depend on that of another o What is a dependent variable?  A variable whose value depends on that of another o What do theories do?  Go through scientific method  Predict behavior o What are the steps of the Scientific Method?  Hypothesis  Operationally define  Collect data  Evaluate data  Replicate data Methods Use (Strengths) Limitations Natural -Validate Experiments -Observer Bias* Observation -Real World Behavior -Observer Effects* -Generate ideas for experiments Case Study -Rare/Unusual Cases -Generalized for anyone else -In depth Research Survey -Lots of data in short period -Wording Effects* of time -Cannot establish -Random Sample cause/effect -Generalize -Social Desirability/Self Report* Experiments -Testing Theories -Loss of realism -Determining Cause/Effect -Artificial quality -Confounding Variables* **Definitions - Observer Bias: Where the observer subconsciously influences the participant because of their own bias - Observer Effects: the person being observed will change their behavior because they are being observed - Wording Effects: the way the question is worded changes the intention of the survey (double barrel question, etc.) - Social Desirability: tendency to answer a question in a way that will be viewed positively by others - Confounding Variables: Variables forgotten about or uncontrolled Answer: C Answer: B Scientists Conduct Ethical Research - Ethical boards must approve ALL research! o Institutional review board (IRB) o Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) - IRB Requires o Informed consent o Protect participants from harm o Protect confidentiality o Fully explain study purposes when over - IACUC (Animal Research) requires animals: o Be treated kindly (minimizing discomfort or pain) o Be properly fed o Be kept in sanitary conditions Stanford Prison Experiment  Watched A Video


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