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End of chapter 7 and all of chapter 25 genetics notes

by: Emmy Thornsberry

End of chapter 7 and all of chapter 25 genetics notes 2100

Marketplace > Georgia College & State University > Biology > 2100 > End of chapter 7 and all of chapter 25 genetics notes
Emmy Thornsberry

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About this Document

Covers cis and trans configuration of alleles. Hardy Weinberg, evolution, allele and genotype frequencies.
Dr. Weese
Class Notes
Genetics, Hardy-Weingberg Principle, evolution
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emmy Thornsberry on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2100 at Georgia College & State University taught by Dr. Weese in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at Georgia College & State University.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Week 7 Genetics Notes Ch 7 Cont. Coupling and Repulsion Configuration of Linked Genes - Coupling- cis configuration; one chromosome contains both wild types, the other contains both mutant types - Repulsion- trans configuration; each chromosome contains one wild and one mutant - Cis and trans produce the same offspring but in different ratios - Cis- more nonrecombinant than recombinant - Trans- more recombinant than nonrecombinant Ch 25 Population genetics Population genetics - Genetic structures of populations - Focus on phenotype, genotype and alleles - Focus highly on alleles because they determine genotype and phenotype - Looks at patterns of genetic variance in populations - Changes in genetic structure through time - Frequencies - Genotype - f(AA)=AA/total - f(Aa)=Aa/total - f(aa)=aa/total - Allele - f(A)=(2AA+Aa)/2(total) - f(a)=(2aa+Aa)/2(total) - q= recessive allele=f(aa)+1/2f(Aa) - p=dominant allele=f(AA)+1/2f(Aa) - p+q=1 - Gene pool- all alleles present for genes of a population - Hardy Weinberg Equation - Describes the allele and genotype frequencies of a population at equilibrium 2​ 2​ - p​ +2pq+q​ =1 - Assumption - Population is large, randomly mating, not affected by mutation, migration, or natural selection - Predictions - Allele frequencies of populations do not change - Genotype frequencies stabilize - Dominant and recessive cannot be determined by frequencies - Non random mating - Inbreeding - Increases proportion of homozygotes - Decreases the proportion of heterozygotes - Allele frequency doesn’t change, just distribution - Results in lethal alleles, disease, etc that only show in homozygous state - Inbreeding depression- decrease in diversity from loss of heterozygotes - Outbreeding- breeding outside of family - Vocab - Positive assortative mating- tendency of like individuals to mate - Negative assortative mating- tendency of unlike individuals to mate - Inbreeding coefficient- offspring are 50% like each parent, 25% like each sibling, etc. can be calculated by multiplying the proportional differences aka sibliing A is 50% parent x 50% parent= 25% sibling B - Evolution force causes changes of allele frequency - Mutation- ultimate source of genetic variation, appearance of new allele changes frequency - Migration- movement of individuals, takes away a portion of diversity to change allele frequency - Genetic drift- changes probability of allele distribution and genetic variation - Selection- one trait that is more favorable than another will result in a shift in alleles toward one trait - Same populations - Mutation- increase variation - Migration- increase variation - Genetic drift- decrease variation - Selection- can increase or decrease - Between different population - Mutation- increase variation - Migration- decrease variation - Genetic drift- increase variaion - Selection- can increase or decrease


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