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## Rates of Reactions

by: Lauren Dennis

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# Rates of Reactions Chemistry 1212

Lauren Dennis
GSU

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Overview notes of Chapter 14 in Chemistry 1212
COURSE
Chemistry 1212
PROF.
Dr. Doyle
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
5
WORDS
CONCEPTS
average, Rates, reactions, catalyst, Enzymes, activation energy
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Chemistry

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Dennis on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 1212 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Doyle in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 1212 in Chemistry at Georgia State University.

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Date Created: 10/03/16
Chapter 13: Average Rates  Average Rates: o Rate = [A] [B] kn o A + B Products  Don’t care about products in average rates  Can only determine m/n through experimental data that is given  Initial Concentration Method o Ex] One Reactant  A  B Rate(m/s)  (1) .10M .015m/s  (2) .20M .015m/s  (3) .40M .015m/s  One divided by another m  Rate = k[A] o (2/1) = (.015m/s = k[.20] )/(.015m/s = k[.10] ) m  1 = [2] m  m = 0 o Rate = k[A] = k 0 Order Reaction o Ex] Two Reactants  CHCl 3 + Cl 2  Products Rate  (1) .010M .010M .0035m/s  (2) .020M .010M .0069m/s  (3) .020M .020M .0098m/s  (4) .040M .040M .026m/s m n  2/1 = (.0069m/s) = k[.020M] [.010M] )/(.0035m/s = k[.010M] [.010M] n o 2 = [2] [1] n  m = 1  1 Order m n  3/2 = (.0098m/s= k[.020M] [.020M] )/ (.0069m/s = k[.020M] [.010M] )n o 1.4 = [1] [2] n  n= .5  Rate = k[A] {B} .5 o Review: m n  Rate = k[A] [B]  Rate = k[A] [B] 1 o = k[B]  These two equations are equivalent  A 0 order equals 1  A  B Rate  0 Order = no change  1 Order = double the k nd  2 Order = quadruple the k  3 Order = 8x the k o Half- Life  1 Oder:  ln[A]t- ln[A] 0 -kt o ln([A] /tA] )0= -kt o These are equivalent equations st  Ex] 1 Order o [A] =01 [A] t ½  ln( ½ / 1) = -kt  .69 = -kt o k = -1.38 o Rate Law Integrated  0 Order  [A]t= -kt 1/2+ [A] 0 o ½ [A] = tkt 1/2+ [A] 0 o ½ [A] – tA] = -0t 1/2  2nd Order  1/ [A]t= kt 1/2+ 1/[A] 0 o 1/½A] = kt 1/2+ 1/[A] 0 o 1/½ [A] – 1t[A] = kt0 1/2 o t 1/2= 1/ [A]k  How Temperature effects the rate of reaction  As you heat up the reaction = particles get faster o Kinetic energy increases o Speed and energy are directly related  Kinetic Rate Theory o Frequency Factor  (1) Orientation: how particles hit: react or do not react  (2) Number of collisions: particles must hit each other at a certain number o Energy of Activation = Activation Energy o o Final energy will be lower than initial o What the reaction has to get over to complete a reaction  Determines how a fast a reaction takes place (-Ea/RT)  E o Fraction of collisions with an energy greater than or equal to the activation energy  number of times the molecules collide to get over the hump of the reaction o Three Things for a reaction to happen:  (1) frequency above a certain reaction  (2) number of collisions  (3) orientation factor o Catalyst o Not part of the reaction o Ex]  CH C3 C2 + 3O (Pt2 3CO + 4H O2 2  Reactions need them, but it is not used up or shown in the reactants or products  Speeds up the reaction = provides an alternate pathway o Enzyme o Natural biological catalyst o Mostly proteins o Holds things in place  Lock/ key method  Binds to change shape: expands to make it easier to break

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