Descartes meditations PHI 151
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Ellzey on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 151 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Paula Smithka in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Philosophy in Philosophical / Religious / Ethical Perspectives at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Descartes’ meditations OVERVIEW Meditation III: Proof for God’s existence Meditation VI: Proof for the existence of physical objects and the divisibility argument Axiom: I think, therefore I am Theorems: 1. All ideas are caused 2. The cause must be as real as the effect 3. Something can’t come from nothing 4. Something more perfect, (i.e. having more reality) cannot come from something less perfect (i.e. having less reality) Solopsism: “only me in the universe” or “just me, myself, and I” Ludwig Feuerbach (Germany) Proof: 1. I have an idea of God 2. Since all ideas are caused (T1), this is idea of God has to be caused 3. Since the cause of the idea must be as real as the effect (T2), the cause of my idea must be real 4. Since something can’t come from nothing, my idea must come from something. (T3) [who/what caused my idea of God?] 5. Hypothesis: I am the cause of my idea of God 6. No-b/c I doubt, error, am finite and something more perfect cannot come from something less perfect 7. Therefore, a perfect being has to exist to cause the idea of a perfect being 8. Therefore, God exists OVERVIEW: Meditation VI Proof the existence of physical objects The divisibility argument Some epistemological and metaphysical implications of dualism THEOREMS 1. All ideas are caused 2. The cause must be as real as the effect 3. Something can’t come from nothing 4. Something more perfect cannot come from something less perfect THE PROOF FOR PHYSICAL OBJECTS 1. I have an idea of a tree 2. Theorems 1-3 to establish the cause of the idea must be real a. [who/what caused my idea of a tree] 3. Hypothesis: I caused my idea of the tree (or any other physical object) 4. I am not the cause of my idea of a tree. b/c I receive the info passively, it’s not under my control and often against my will 5. God is the cause of my idea of the tree 6. God is not the cause of my idea of the tree b/c since trees (and other physical objects) seem real and if God didn’t give me the ability to know that it was God and it was not objects, He’d be deceiving me, but God is not deceiver 7. Therefore, the tree exists to cause my idea of it. 2 EPISTEMIC: INDIRECT REALISM Senses cannot be trusted Thinking leads to ideas Thomas Reid Direct realism Trusts senses METAPHYSICAL “My mind effects my body, my body effects my mind” A body can exist without a mind o Maybe when we are dead a body can exist without a mind o stones o trees Our mind tells us we want a coke, what makes our physical body get up and go get it. We have a migraine, we take a pill, the pill goes through our blood stream, it attacks the nerve endings, BOOM headache gone. Pineal gland is the seed of the soul The seed of the soul connects to the animal spirits o Spirits are immaterial Leibniz Parallelism and correlation Pre-established harmony 3
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