COMM 370 Week 4 Lecture Notes
COMM 370 Week 4 Lecture Notes COMM370010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heather Cronin on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM370010 at University of Delaware taught by Angelini,James R. in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Theories of Mass Communication in Communications at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
COMM 370: Theories of Media Communication Week 4 Lecture Notes Two-step flow o Mass media is spread to opinion leaders o Followers listen to the opinion leaders, and base their opinions off of that o Impact of mass communication is not automatic—it trickles down the system instead of reaching everyone simultaneously Mass Media and Society o One of society’s basic institutions Family Education Religion Arts Politics o Interconnected with other institutions o Center of knowledge in society o Purpose of Media Window: seeing the world in real time Mirror: reflect what’s going on in the world Filter/Gatekeeper: determines what the world sees Signpost/guide/interpreter: translate news into something everyone understands Platform/forum: a way to get a message out Screen/barrier: intended for a specific audience or the majority o Normative Theories What is right/wrong, desirable/undesirable, just/unjust Describe how media is integrated into society Authoritarian: oldest and most common, media protects established social order, tightly controlled and subordinate to authorities, censorship and controls are common Libertarian: reaction to authoritarianism, no restrictions, freedom valued, private ownership of media (laissez- faire), universal access to media Soviet Totalitarianism: media controlled/owned by communist government, media broadcasts propaganda to help communist party, no criticism allowed Social Responsibility: avoid problem-causing content; media should be as diverse as its audience; government should have limited control Developmental Media: light government control; education and information are most important Democratic-Participant: small-scale, interactive media beats large, one-way media; local groups should have own media Implications Media controlled by those with political/economic power Media is a reflection of those in control financially If you are living in a society with a controlling media message, you believe what you hear Structural Functionalism Media serves a purpose in society Functions o Surveillance: monitoring environment News Functions: Warning Instrumental: offers useful information Exposure to norms Dysfunctions Heightens anxiety Narcotizing Overexposure: makes us believe it happens more than it actually does o Correlation: information about world around you Functions: Enforces norms Impedes threats to social stability Checks on government Dyfunctions: Reinforces conformity and stereotypes Creates pseudoevents Little criticism o Socialization: transmission of culture Functions: creates cohesive society Dysfunctions: Reduces diversity o Entertainment Functions: Leisure activity Mass culture Dysfunctions: Lowers taste Feminist Approaches o Radical Emphasizes division due to inherent differences between men and women Believe there should be a division Devaluation of women means societal institutions cannot accommodate them Supremacy of men: patriarchy Separate media for the sexes Women have media to meet their needs o Liberal Feminism Women’s place in society mirrors images put out in the media Emphasize equal media to improve women’s place in society Media Hegemony o Media reinforces status quo and portrays difference as deviant o Hegemonic masculinity: what is expected Physical strength Heterosexuality Wealth Authority Suppression of sad/weak emotions Selective Perception: how people make meaning of the world through selection, organization, and interpretations of sensory stimulation o Structural and functional influences Subliminal Perception o Can be influenced by things without being aware o James Vicary Sold movie projector that would flash messages during films for 1/3,000 of a second to increase popcorn and soda sales Ended up being fabricated o Wilson Bryan Key Sexual imagery used to sell products “Clam plate orgy” Selectivity o Selective Exposure People expose themselves to messages that already align with their beliefs, and ignore those that do not Heider’s Balance Theory Equal relationships Balanced: If X likes O, but X doesn’t like P, then O doesn’t like P Unbalanced: X likes O, X doesn’t like P, but O likes P Cognitive Dissonance Leon Festinger Pre-existing attitudes New info can be irrelevant, consonant, or dissonant People tend to discount or reinterpret dissonant information
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