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Histo: Bone Notes

by: Amna Iftikhar

Histo: Bone Notes Med 47729

Amna Iftikhar

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Organ Systems: Cardiovascular
Dr. Schalop
Class Notes
Histology, bone, medicine
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amna Iftikhar on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Med 47729 at The City University of New York (CUNY) taught by Dr. Schalop in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Organ Systems: Cardiovascular in Medicine at The City University of New York (CUNY).


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Bone Function  Protection for vital organs  Harbors bone marrow  Attachment site for muscles  CA+2, PO-3 reservoir Cell types  Osteocytes: found in cavities between bone matrix layers  Osteoblasts: synthesize organic components of the matrix  Osteoclasts: multinuclear cells that resorb the bone Bone types  Macroscopic o Compact and spongy  Microscopic o Primary: immature bone (aka woven). Greater number of cells o Secondary: mature bone (aka lamellar)  Layered General information  Endosteum: layer of CT on the internal surface of bone surrounding the marrow cavity  Periosteom: layer of CT on the external surface of bone  Canaliculi: space in the bone in which osteocytes and blood capillaries can communicate  Central canal: where the blood vessels run in the center of the osteon  Interstitial lamellae: where old osteons used to be before they were replaced with new ones o Note: old osteons are more mineralized than new  Perforating (Volkmann) canal: connects adjacent osteon together. Provide another source of microvasculature for the central canals of the osteons Osteoblasts  Found at the surface of bone matrix  Synthesize type I collagen, ground substance, glycoproteins (osteonectin), osteocalcin  Osteoid: secreted by osteoblasts and then harden and trap the osteoblasts to become osteocytes  Matrix calcification o Osteocalcin secreted by osteoblasts binds Ca2+ and increases it o Osteoblasts also secrete alkaline phosphatase which increases PO -4 o The vesicles housing alkaline phosphatase serve as foci for the st formation of hydroxyapatite crystals. 1 step in calcification that is unique to bone o Process continues until calcium is embedded in calcified material Osteocytes  Differentiate further from osteoblasts when they become enclosed within matrix lacunae and maintain the matrix  Maintain communication with adjacent cells via a network of long dendritic processes that extend though the matrix via narrow canaliculi  Osteoclasts  Formed by fusion of several blood monocytes which locally erode bone matrix during osteogenesis and bone remodeling Calcium mobilization  Mainly resorbed in spongy bone  2 hormones regulate calcium release and absorption o PTH: used when calcium is low  inhibits osteoblasts and causes them to secrete osteoclast stimulating factor. Matrix is broken down and calcium delivered to interstitial fluid o Calcitonin: used when calcium is high  Released by thyroid parafollicular cells. Slows matrix resorption and gradually lowers calcium levels Types of Bone  Outside layer of bone is compact bone and inside layer is spongy bone  In long bones o Epiphyses: bulbous ends  Spongy bone with a thin layer of compact bone  Where secondary ossification occurs and has blood vessels o Diaphysis: cylindrical part of bone  Mostly compact bone on the outside with a thin part of spongy bone in the middle  Where primary ossification occurs Osteogenesis  For flat bone formation o Intramembranous ossification o Mesenchyme --> osteoblasts --> osteoid  Long bone formation o Endochondral ossification o Hyaline cartilage mold replaced by bone matrix o Steps o Zone of proliferation: chondrocytes begin to divide rapidly and form columns of stacked cells parallel to the long axis of the bone Fracture Repair  Growth of bones occurs throughout life, with cells and matrix turning over continuously through activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts  Lamellae and osteons are temporary structure that are replaced and rebuilt continuously in a process of bone remodeling  Bone repair after fracture or other injury involves the activation of periosteal fibroblasts to produce initial soft, fibrocartilage-like callus o The soft callus is gradually replaced by hard callus of woven bone that is soon remodeled to produce stronger lamellar bone Joints  Where bone meet, articulate allowing bending to occur  Synarthroses: limited to no movement (ex: IV discs)  Diarthroses: freely mobile joints o Have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid o End of bones have articular cartilage o Macrophage-like synovial cells: remove wear and tear debris from synovial fluid o Fibroblast-like synovial cells: produce hyaluronate which helps lubricate the joints


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