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Geog 101 Week 1-2

by: Stephanie Sanchez Velasquez

Geog 101 Week 1-2 GEOG 101

Stephanie Sanchez Velasquez
California State University Northridge
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

This notes cover week 1 and two
Physical Geography
Mia Dittmer
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Sanchez Velasquez on Monday October 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 101 at California State University Northridge taught by Mia Dittmer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Physical Geography in Geography at California State University Northridge.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
INTRODUCTION: 1. Earth & Sun Relationship a. The Shape of the earth  i. Is Oblate shape (27 miles longer on the West/ East ii. The middle of the EQUATOR is Equatorial Bulge (S/N) b. Rotation of the earth on its axis i. It takes a 24 hour period to make a whole rotation ii. Rotation direction is from west  east ==  iii. Near the pole there is no rotation iv. Farther you are from the pole the faster it is c. Revolution of the earth around the sun  i. Leap year was intended to add 1 day every 4 years usually the end  of Feb. d. Plan of the ecliptic i. Def. Ecliptic­ is the imaginary plane containing the earth’s orbit  around the sun  e. Shape of the orbit  i. The shape is elliptical  ii. The sun is not at the center  iii. When the earth is near the sun its called Perihelion (OCCURS  RD NEAR JAN 3 ) iv. When the sun is farthest from the earth its called Aphelion  (OCCURS JULY 4 ) TH v. The approximate to the sun has nothing to do w/ the seasons vi. The Southern Hemisphere gets 7% more radiation then the  Northern Hemisphere f. Geographic Grid i. Latitude (Meridians)  1. Are lines drawn from north to south but measured in  east/west position  g. Circle of Illumination i. Is the division between the light or shadow (dark side) of the earth  h. Subsolar Point i. There is only one latitude on any given day when the suns rays are  perpendicular to the earth’s surface 1. Obligate angle­ the more oblige less heat, more cool ii. Noon will always be when the sun is the highest on the sky iii. The subsolar point through out the year will be found some where  between 23 ½ n ­­­­­­ 23 ½ s latitude iv. NOTE: the farther the subsolar point is from the location the cooler it will be, the closer the subsolar point is to your location the  warmer it will be i. Tilt of the axis i. The tilt is what controls the seasons ii. Without a tilt the earth would have no seasons SEASONS: j. Winter Solstice (Northern Hemisphere) i. Around DEC 21/22 ii. Obligate sunlight angle the less sunlight received  iii. The farther away the subsolar point is the colder it will be iv. Subsolar point will be at 23 ½ S v. SOUTH­ Long Days/ Short Nights 1. Between 66 ½ s & 90 s is a 24 hr day because it never  crosses to the dark vi. NORTH­ Shorter days, Longer nights 1. @ Artic Circle 66 ½ n we are at a 24 hr night period 2. at the pole you do not see sun until 6 months 3. obligate sunlight angle k. Vernal Equinox (Spring) i. Occurs March 20,21   st ii. Subsolar point is at 0 iii. Sunlight is coming in straight to the equator  iv. No hemisphere is actually titled towards to the sun  v. Equal sunlight between north/ south vi. Subsolar point is at the equator vii. Equal day, equal night  l. Summer Solstice i. Occurs on June 21­22 nd ii. Subsolar point is heading North 23 ½ n iii. Tilted towards the sun iv. Closer to subsolar point the warmer it will be v. Longer day light vi. NORTH  1. Long days, short nights 2. The more we get towards the north hem. The longer days  we have the shorter nights we have 3. 90 n / 66 ½  n is a 24 hr day period vii. SOUTH 1. Obligate tilt in the south  2. Southern hemisphere is cooling 3. Longer nights/ shorter days m. Autumnal Equinox  exactly the same as vernal equinox i. Occurs Sep 22, 23 rd ii. Subsolar point is at 0 in the equator iii. 12 hr day/ 12 hr night ENERGY BUDGET & TEMPERATURE a. Atmospheric Content  i. Most common gases are  1. Nitrogen  2. Oxygen  3. Argon  ii. Controlling Factors a. Height above ground b. Latitude  c. Seasons­ moisture d. 99% of the atmosphere  i. Ash ii. Mold iii. Paling  e. Salt/ Ocean – this particles are important to develop weather b. Energy a. Electromagnetic Radiation i. DEF­ all objects are capable of reflecting, absorbing and  radiating energy ii. Radiation­ is the heat transfer meganisms by which solar  energy reaches our planet  b. Long wave Wavelengths iii. Each type of radiation that is admitted through the sun has its  own unique wavelength  c. Shortwave Wavelengths iv. Have much more energy  *Any object needs to be absorbed that heat energy then it becomes real & you can  measure it Decreasing Energy/ Increasing wavelength SHORT ­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­ ­ LONG Gamma­ X­ray – Ultra violet – Visible – Nearinfrared + Shortwave       ­Thermal – Microwave ­ Radio Infrared          Infrared Incoming solar radiation = “insolation” potential heat energy / Outgoing long wave Radiation Short wave list a. Any object needs to be absorbed in order for heat energy to real and measured  b. In order to feel heat it must be absorbed  c. The major absorber is the ground it’s the primary sole for incoming radiation  Long wave list a. Outgoing radiation is directly heating the atmosphere b. Idea: it is sensible heat that is leaving as a result it is the long wave that the heat is returning to space    C. Global Radiation Balance i. At the poles its heat deficit because of the sunlight is heating at  an oblique angle ii. Sub solar point is a heat surplus  iii. We have 2 redistribution systems 1. Ocean currency  2. Global wind currency  1. Reflection  5% is insolation, which is (dust, water vapor, gases) 21% clouds is reflected off the sunlight 6% ground is reflected off the grounds surface  ALBEDO­ is surface reflectivity   32% almost a 3  of our incoming radiation is reflected away – we lose a 3  of our  sunlight , we still have 2/3 to heat off  2. Absorbed – it all depends on the angles  15% absorbed by dust, water vapor, gases (ozone) Clouds absorb 3% of sunshine (reflect way more, then absorb) 50 % of absorption is by the ground  *68% on average is going to be absorbed The earth cools off by radiating long wave heat energy is getting radiated away  IV. Factors affecting latitudinal/ regional variation in radiation received i. Length of day  a. Summer has longer days b. Longer days receive more radiation which means more heat c. Winter has shorter days which means less heat, which means  the earth is going to cool off ii. Angles of sun’s rays  a. Highest sun angle is SUMMER TIME i. More radiation received, temp will warm up b. Latitude  i. Lower sun angles at higher latitude, means less  radiation received as a result it will be cooler  c. Aspect, Slope, Elevation  i. Aspects describes what direction a mountain slope  faces 3. Slope (Angle) a. Steep Slope= more direct angle, more radiation received b. Low flat slope= less radiation received 4. Elevation a. High elevations receive more radiation then when low elevations less  radiation


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